Asherman's Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders) (2023)

Asherman’s Syndrome

NORD gratefully acknowledges Lisa Chang and Rhea Kerawala, MSGDA Candidates, NORD Editorial Interns from the Keck Graduate Institute School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, and Derick Han, PhD, Associate Professor of Biopharmaceutical Sciences for assistance in the preparation of this report.

Synonyms of Asherman’s Syndrome

  • intrauterine synechiae
  • uterine synechiae
  • intrauterine adhesions (IUA)

General Discussion

Asherman’s syndrome is a rare, acquired, gynecological disorder of the uterus. It is characterized by the bonding of scar tissue that lines the walls of the uterus, which decreases the volume of the uterine cavity. The bonding of uterine scar tissue (intrauterine adhesions or synechiae) may occur as a result of surgical scraping or cleaning of tissue from the uterine wall (dilatation and curettage [D and C]), infections of the endometrium (e.g., genital tuberculosis), or other factors. Asherman’s syndrome can be severe (greater than 75% of the front and back walls of the uterus can fuse together) to moderate and mild, where only smaller portions of the uterine wall fuses together. Patients can experience a range of symptoms depending on the severity of the disease, including reduced menstrual flow, increased cramping and abdominal pain, eventual stoppage of menstrual cycles (amenorrhea), and, in some women, infertility. Current treatment options include hysteroscopic surgery as well as preventive (Foley catheter) and restorative therapies (hormone treatment). Newer options like stem cell treatments are also currently being explored to treat severe cases of Asherman’s syndrome.

Signs & Symptoms

Most patients with Asherman’s syndrome experience menstrual blood flow that is sparse (hypomenorrhea) or absent (amenorrhea) along with increased cramping and abdominal pain. Some patients may experience interrupted menstrual blood flow with substantial pain, while others may not have any abnormal changes to their menstrual cycle or experience any pain. Recurrent miscarriages and/or infertility may also be signs of Asherman’s syndrome. In more severe cases, adhesion of uterine scar tissue can also lead to either a partial or full blockage of the uterus or cervical canal that can cause retrograde menstruation (menstruation blood that flows backwards into the fallopian tubes instead of being expelled from the body).

Causes

Asherman’s syndrome is most commonly caused by trauma to the uterus through surgical scraping or cleaning of the uterine wall (dilatation and curettage, also known as D & C). D & C is generally performed to clear the uterine lining following a miscarriage or abortion or to treat certain uterine conditions such as heavy bleeding. D & C after a miscarriage is one of the highest risk factors for Asherman’s syndrome. The scraping of the uterine lining following this procedure can lead to scar tissue that can adhere, leading to Asherman’s syndrome. Other types of surgery to the uterus such as removal of fibroids or polyps or surgical repair of structural defects in the uterus can cause scar tissue formation which is also a risk factor for Asherman’s syndrome. Factors that trigger inflammation in the uterus known as endometriosis and sporadic inflammation of the uterus have been linked to Asherman’s syndrome. Infection and inflammation of the uterus caused by bacteria (genital tuberculosis) and parasites such as blood flukes are also risk factors for Asherman’s syndrome.

Affected Populations

Since Asherman’s syndrome involves changes in the uterus, it is limited to the female population. While exact statistics on the prevalence of this condition are not known, the highest frequency of this condition has been reported in Israel, Greece, and South America. Overall, occurrence of Asherman’s syndrome does not seem to be related to any factor associated with geographic location. Genetic predisposition in patients to Asherman’s syndrome has not been identified. Women who have suffered miscarriages or underwent D & C in the first month postpartum have a higher risk for the condition.

Related Disorders

Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of Asherman’s syndrome. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis:

Primary amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation by the age of 15 or three years after the first signs of breast development. This is most often due to abnormal hypothalamic gonadotropic-releasing hormone levels (GnRH, sex cell growth hormone) Symptoms include incomplete or underdeveloped external genitalia and breasts, ovarian deficiency, and underactive pituitary.

Secondary amenorrhea, which can occur in Asherman’s syndrome, is when the absence of menstruation of more than three cycles occurs in women who have previously menstruated, which may be due to scraping of the uterine wall (D&C) or acute endometritis.

Endometriosis is a prevalent inflammatory condition that can cause Asherman’s syndrome. It is caused by an inability to shed the tissue buildup of the uterus (endometrium) before menstruation. Symptoms may include lower back or thigh pain, or excessive pain during the menstrual cycle.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the infection of the fallopian tubes, cervix, uterus or ovaries. It is transmitted by sexual intercourse, childbirth or abortion and occurs most often in young women.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a rare reproductive disorder affecting young women. It is characterized by absent or abnormal menstruation, sterility, mild signs of secondary male sex characteristics and sometimes obesity.

(Video) Pregnancy in a Scarred Uterus & Ashermans Syndrome

Diagnosis

Asherman’s syndrome is usually diagnosed through imaging the size and shape of the uterus. The gold standard for diagnosis is a scope and camera tool called a hysteroscope that is inserted into the uterus to display a real-time view of the uterine cavity. Unfortunately, hyperscopes are not readily available in most gynecologist offices. Consequently, Asherman syndromemay be underdiagnosed since it cannot be effectively detected by routine examinations or by more standard diagnostic scans such as ultrasound. Another common diagnostic method for Asherman’s syndrome is hysterosalpingography which involves the injection of a contrasting fluid into the uterus in order for an X-ray image to be generated. Hysterosalpingography allows for the imaging of the uterine cavity shape which may be abnormal in the presence of intrauterine adhesions. Other common imaging tools such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI]) cannot usually detect Asherman’s syndrome and remain supplementary diagnostic tools.

Standard Therapies

Therapies for Asherman’s syndrome focus on restoring the uterus to its original size and shape. The therapies can be divided into three primary approaches: treatment – hysteroscopic surgery, re-adhesion prevention, and uterus restoration therapies. Mild cases of Asherman’s syndrome may only require surgical treatment, while more severe cases may require all three approaches. Most cases of Asherman’s syndrome can be cured with treatment.

Treatment

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The most common treatment for Asherman’s syndrome is hysteroscopic surgery (hysteroscopes plus scissors or other cutting instruments) to cut the adhesions of the uterine wall. The hysteroscope allows the doctor a magnified and the direct view of the uterus for precise cutting of the uterine adhesions. Most hysteroscopic surgery can be done in an outpatient setting. The treatment of the severe cases of Asherman’s syndrome can be more challenging, as the cavity may be completely blocked or too narrow to allow the insertion of the hysteroscope inside the cervix.

Re-Adhesion Prevention

Several procedures have been developed to prevent re-adhesion of the uterine wall following hysteroscopic surgery, since the scar tissue may re-adhere. The Foley catheter was one of first devices developed to separate the uterine walls to prevent the recurrent adhesions. A Foley catheter can be inserted in the uterine cavity for 5 to 7 days with a bag for removing drainage from the uterus. Another method to prevent adhesions from reoccurring is a uterine balloon stent made from silicon and shaped to fill the uterine cavity. Finally, application of certain chemicals such as hyaluronic acidhas been shown to help prevent uterine re-adhesion. Although the mechanism is not completely understood, it is believed that hyaluronic acidacts as a temporary barrier to prevent re-adhesion and may also promote tissue repair.

Uterus Restoration Therapy

Hormone therapy such as estrogen supplements have been proposed to help enhance tissue repair and restore the lining of the uterus. While some studies have suggested that estrogen therapy may enhance repair and growth of cells in the uterine wall, more clinical studies are being performed to confirm the value of estrogen therapy for treatment of Asherman’s syndrome. Antibiotics are also often prescribed following hysteroscopic surgery. While antibiotics do not directly prevent re-adhesion, they help prevent infections and inflammation that may damage the uterus and trigger re-adhesion of the uterine walls.

Investigational Therapies

Clinical trials of stem cell therapy are ongoing to determine if this therapy can help rebuild the uterine wall particularly following severe cases of Asherman’s syndrome. Stem cells are basic cells (undifferentiated) that can be programmed to become almost any cell in the body including cells that line the uterus. Stem cell therapies are focusing primarily on rebuilding the endometrial lining that has become damaged from adhesions and surgery. Early clinical trials have demonstrated that stem cell therapy is safe and may be effective in helping regeneration the uterine walls as well as helping resumption of menstruation and improving fertility. Clinical trials of stem therapy for Asherman’s syndrome are currently ongoing.

Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet atwww.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.

For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:

Tollfree: (800) 411-1222
TTY: (866) 411-1010
Email:[emailprotected]

Some current clinical trials also are posted on the following page on the NORD website:
https://rarediseases.org/for-patients-and-families/information-resources/news-patient-recruitment/

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For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:
www.centerwatch.com

For information about clinical trials conducted in Europe, contact:
https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/

Supporting Organizations

  • Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
  • RESOLVE: National Infertility Association
    • 7918 Jones Branch Drive
    • Suite 300
    • McLean, VA 22102 USA
    • Phone: (703) 556-7172
    • Email: [emailprotected]
    • Website: http://www.resolve.org

References

REVIEW ARTICLES

Doroftei B, Dabuleanu A M, Ilie OD, Maftei R, Anton E, Simionescu G, Matei T, and Armeanu T. Mini-Review of the new therapeutic possibilities in Asherman syndrome-where are we after one hundred and twenty-six years? Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) 2020; 10(9), 706. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10090706

Conforti A, Alviggi C, Mollo A, De Placido G, and Magos A. The management of Asherman syndrome: a review of literature. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology,2013; 11, 118. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3880005/pdf/1477-7827-11-118.pdf

March CM. Asherman’s syndrome. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 2011; 29(2), 83–94. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1272470

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Carugno J, Laganà A and Vitale SG. Use of 3D ultrasound in the hysteroscopic management of Asherman syndrome. Annals of Translational Medicine. 2020; 8(14),847. https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.04.18

Gibson M ES, Fleming N, Zuijdwijk C and Dumont T. Where Have the Periods Gone? The Evaluation and Management of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 2020; 12(Suppl 1), 18–27. https://doi.org/10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2019.S0178

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Han Q and Du Y. Advances in the Application of Biomimetic Endometrium Interfaces for Uterine Bioengineering in Female Infertility. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 2020; 8, 153. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.00153

Vancaillie T, Chan K, Liu J, Deans R and Howard E. Asherman syndrome: Audit of a single‐operator cohort of 423 cases. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2020; 60: 574-578.
https://doi.org/10.1111/ajo.13182

Amin TN, Saridogan E and Jurkovic D. Ultrasound and intrauterine adhesions: a novel structured approach to diagnosis and management. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 46: 131-139. https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.14927

Tsui KH, Lin LT, Cheng JT, Teng SW, Wang PH. Comprehensive treatment for infertile women with severe Asherman syndrome. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2014; 53(3): 372-375.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2014.04.022.

Burney RO and Giudice C. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility 2012; 98(3), 511–519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.06.029

Conforti A, Alviggi C, Mollo A, De Placido G and Magos A. The management of Asherman syndrome: a review of literature. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2013; RB&E, 11, 118. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-11-118

Bauer ST and Bonanno C. Abnormal placentation. Seminars in Perinatology2009; 33(2), 88–96. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi.2008.12.003

Livsey R. Hysterosalpingography. Australasian Radiology 2001; 45(1), 98–99. https://doi-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/10.1046/j.1440-1673.2001.00893.x

Years Published

1991, 1997, 2005, 2021

The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional.

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FAQs

Can Ashermans syndrome be fixed? ›

Asherman syndrome can often be cured with surgery. Sometimes more than one procedure will be necessary. Women who are infertile because of Asherman syndrome may be able to have a baby after treatment. Successful pregnancy depends on the severity of Asherman syndrome and the difficulty of the treatment.

Is Asherman's syndrome rare? ›

Asherman's syndrome is a rare condition where scar tissue, also called adhesions or intrauterine adhesions, builds up inside your uterus.

Can a woman with Asherman syndrome get pregnant? ›

If you have Asherman syndrome, it may be hard for you to conceive. If you do, the chances of having a miscarriage are high. Getting pregnant while you have the condition is possible, but the adhesions in the walls of the uterus don't give room for fetal development.

Can Asherman syndrome be treated naturally? ›

Shatavari offers excellent results whenever it is used in reproductive health and regulates hormonal imbalance. It rejuvenates the reproductive system in women and also strengthens the uterus. Another useful herb in asherman syndrome is natural arjuna that supports the uterus and regulates the hormones in females.

What does Asherman's syndrome feel like? ›

Most patients with Asherman's syndrome experience menstrual blood flow that is sparse (hypomenorrhea) or absent (amenorrhea) along with increased cramping and abdominal pain.

Can you do IVF with Asherman syndrome? ›

Treat Asherman with IVF

Reproductive doctors can use surgery to clear the condition, but this does not guarantee a pregnancy. For women who still struggle to start or grow a family, IVF is a viable treatment option.

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