A chemotherapy port (also known as a chemo port) is a small device implanted under the skin that is attached to a vein in the chest to deliver chemotherapy drugs to the body. Without a port, a new intravenous (IV) needle would need to be placed each and every time you have chemo.
A chemo port differs from a peripherally inserted central catheter (also known as a PICC line), which is implanted into a vein in your arm and used for a shorter period of time.
This article explains why a chemotherapy port is needed and how the device is implanted. It also outlines the benefits and risks of a chemo port and how infection and other complications are avoided.
Port Use in Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy involves multiple intravenous infusions of medications over time. The drugs are generally given in courses of three to six months with infusions given every two to six weeks. You may be given one course or chemo or several. In advanced cases, treatment may be ongoing.
Chemo ports spare you the pain and aggravation of getting jabbed in the arm every session. But, they are about more than just convenience. Some chemotherapy medications can only be given through a port because they are too caustic for the veins in your arm. Instead, the drug is delivered to a larger, thicker vein in the chest.
Chemotherapy can also cause changes to veins that make them harder and more difficult to access with a traditional IV needle.
Cancer specialists called oncologists generally recommend a port if you will require more than four infusions. In some cases, a port may allow you to have some chemotherapy at home instead of in a hospital or clinic.
Chemotherapy ports are generally recommended if you need more than four IV infusions. They not only spare you from getting repeatedly jabbed in the arm but may be a safer method of delivering some of the more caustic chemotherapy drugs.
How a Chemo Port Is Implanted
Chemo ports are surgically placed under the skin near a large vein in the upper chest. They are typically implanted as a same-day procedure with a local anesthetic that numbs the skin rather than puts you to sleep. They are sometimes placed at the same time as the surgical resection (removal) of a tumor.
During the insertion, a small, round metal or plastic disc, called the drum or reservoir, is placed under the skin through a 1- to 2-inch incision. An attached tube, called a catheter, is then connected to either the internal jugular vein of the neck or the subclavian vein that runs from the shoulder to the neck.
After your port is placed, the surgeon will perform an X-ray to make sure the port is correctly connected and secured. The port will be visibly seen under the skin but is largely concealed with clothes.
After chemotherapy is completed, the device can be removed.
Chemotherapy ports are implanted under the skin of the upper chest and connected to a large vein. The implantation can be performed under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis.
As with any surgical procedure, there are advantages and disadvantages to having a chemo port. The benefits include:
- Increased comfort: With a chemo port, an IV needle is inserted into the reservoir through a thin rubbery membrane called the septum. You may feel initial pressure but little pain.
- Reduced risk of extravasation: When a traditional IV is used, chemo drugs may extravasate (leak) and damage surrounding tissues. A chemo port reduces the risk since the delivery vein is large. The leakage, if any, is usually limited to the reservoir.
- Bathing and swimming: You can usually bathe and even swim without concern about infection because the port is completely encased under the skin.
Chemotherapy ports may seem like a "no-brainer," but they have their limitations and risks. They include:
- Risk of infection: While the risk is relatively low, it can occur. Research suggests that around 2% of chemo ports need to be replaced due to an infection.
- Risk of thrombosis: Many people with a chemo port will develop a blood clot (thrombosis) which can block the catheter. The blockage can often be unblocked with an injection of the blood-thinner heparin into the catheter. But sometimes the port will need to be replaced.
- Mechanical problems: Mechanical problems, such as the movement of the catheter or a separation of the port from the skin, can cause a chemo port to stop working.
- Limitation of movement: Although activities like bathing and swimming are usually OK, your oncologist may recommend avoiding strenuous exercises involving the chest until chemotherapy is completed.
- Scarring: Some people find that having a permanent scar on their upper chest is an upsetting reminder of their cancer experience. They may also prefer not to have a scar for cosmetic reasons.
- Surgical risks: Any surgical procedure carries risks, including the risk of bleeding. A rare complication called pneumothorax (collapsed lung) can occur if the lung is accidentally punctured. Pneumothorax has been reported in 1% of cases.
Ease of use
Largely invisible under clothes
Reduced risk of extravasation (drug leakage)
Generally allows bathing or swimming
Risk of infection
Risk of blood clots and catheter obstruction
May limit some activities
Risk of surgical complications
As infrequent as infections are with chemo pumps, they do occur. In severe cases, this can lead to a potentially life-threatening, whole-body infection known as septicemia.
Flushing the catheter with an antibiotic and heparin solution appears to significantly reduce the risk of infection. Cleansing the skin also does not appear to help. However, if there are signs of a local infection, dressings impregnated with antibioticsmay be used along with oral or injected antibiotics.
Thrombosis is another common reason that ports are replaced.Routinely flushing a port with heparin does not seem to reduce the risk and may promote bleeding. Any minor clots that do develop can often be broken up with an injection of heparin into the catheter.
Your cancer care providers can reduce the risk of infection by flushing the catheter with an antibiotic and heparin solution prior to every chemo session. There are few ways to prevent thrombosis, but an injection of heparin can often break up minor clots.
A chemotherapy port is a device implanted under the skin to deliver chemo drugs to a large vein in the upper chest. The port is usually implanted as a same-day surgical procedure under local anesthesia.
A chemo port reduces the need for repeated needle sticks during chemo. The port is largely invisible under clothes and can be submerged under water while bathing or swimming. Even so, chemo ports carry a risk of infection, thrombosis (blood clots), and mechanical failure. There is also a risk of surgical complications, including bleeding and pneumothorax.
The risk of infection can be reduced by flushing the catheter with an antibiotic and heparin solution prior to each chemo session. Minor blood clots can usually be broken up by injecting heparin into the catheter.
A Word From Verywell
Having a chemo port implanted is often the first step in chemotherapy. Since it involves minor surgery, there are risks you need to consider.
It is important to talk with your oncologist about the pros and cons of a chemo port—and how you'll need to care for it—before you make an informed decision about the procedure.
Frequently Asked Questions
What does a chemo port look like?
Chemo ports are around the size of a silver dollar and can be circular, oval, or triangular. The port is implanted under the skin and has a raised center made of a self-sealing rubber material called the septum through which a needle is inserted into the catheter.
How long is a port left in after chemo?
A port can be left in place for weeks, months, or even years, but it is typically removed when you are finished with chemotherapy treatment. When your port is in place but you are not undergoing treatment, a nurse will need to flush it out every four weeks so it doesn't become blocked.
How is a chemo port removed?(Video) What is Chemoport / Chemotherapy port? How to take its care? - Cancer treatment - Edusurg Clinics
You will usually be given a local anesthetic before the chemo port is removed. A small incision will be made, after which the port and the catheter are removed. The incision is then closed with sutures, surgical tape, or surgical glue, and covered with a bandage.
Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
American Society of Clinical Oncology. Catheters and ports in cancer treatment.
University Health Network. What to expect when getting an implanted port.
Madabhavi I, Patel A, Sarkar M, Anand A, Panchal H, Parikh S. A study of use of "PORT" catheter in patients with cancer: a single-center experience. Clin Med Insights Oncol. 2017. doi: 10.1177/1179554917691031
Sousa B, Furlanetto J, Hutka M, et al. Central venous access in oncology: esmo clinical practice guidelines.Annals of Oncology. 2015;26:v152-v168. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdv296
Tsotsolis N, Tsirgogianni K, Kioumis I, et al. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion. Ann Transl Med. 2015;3(3):40. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.02.11
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. About your implanted port.(Video) Using a Chemotherapy Port During Your Chemo Treatment
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Instructions after your procedure to remove your implanted port or central venous catheter (CVC).
By Lynne Eldridge, MD
Lynne Eldrige, MD, is a lung cancer physician, patient advocate, and award-winning author of "Avoiding Cancer One Day at a Time."
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You could get an infection around your port or at the tip of your catheter where it hits the bloodstream. If you notice signs like redness, swelling, heat, pain in the area, a high fever, or dizziness, call your doctor right away. You could also get a blood clot in the vein where your catheter is put in.Is it better to have a port for chemo? ›
Your health care team can give you chemotherapy, other drugs, blood transfusions, and fluids this way. Medical devices called catheters and ports make intravenous treatments easier. They can also make it easier for your health care team to take blood samples.What are the benefits and risks of chemotherapy? ›
As well as killing cancer cells, chemotherapy can damage some healthy cells in your body, such as blood cells, skin cells and cells in the stomach. This can cause a range of unpleasant side effects, such as: feeling tired most of the time. feeling and being sick.What are three complications of port placement? ›
- Blockages in the port or catheter.
- Blood clots in the catheter or vein.
- Collapsed lung (pneumothorax).
- Cracked port.
- Dislodged catheter tip.
- Embolism (air bubble in a blood vessel).
Even so, chemo ports carry a risk of infection, thrombosis (blood clots), and mechanical failure. There is also a risk of surgical complications, including bleeding and pneumothorax. The risk of infection can be reduced by flushing the catheter with an antibiotic and heparin solution prior to each chemo session.How long can a chemo port stay in? ›
How long can a chemo port remain in place? Unlike an IV catheter, which must be reinserted for each treatment session, a port can remain in place as long as necessary – for several weeks, months or even years. When it is no longer needed, the port can be removed through a relatively simple outpatient procedure.