Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (2022)

Table of Contents
Cure for Type 1 Diabetes A Program for the Cure of Type 1 Diabetes Using a Generic Drug: Phase II TACKLING BETA CELL DEATH IN TYPE 1 DIABETES IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS THAT TRIGGER BETA CELL DAMAGE AND TYPE 1 DIABETES Understanding the roles of Cathepsin H in triggering Type 1 Diabetes Diabetes Prevention IDENTIFICATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF T2D UNDERSTANDING BCAA REGULATION - A STEP TOWARD DECIPHERING DIABETES Complementary / Nutrition Research THE EFFECTS OF METFORMIN AND BERBERINE ON THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ZUCKER DIABETIC FATTY RATS GLYCEMIC INDEX AND POST-PRANDIAL INFLAMMATION IN ADOLESCENT TYPE 1 DIABETES COMPLEMENTARY MANUKA HONEY EMBEDDED DERMAL REGENERATION TEMPLATES TO IMPROVE DIABETIC WOUND HEALING NOVEL FUNCTIONS OF ROSMARINIC ACID AND ITS ANALOG AS DIABETES-PREVENTION NUTRACEUTICALS; IN VIVO EFFICACY STUDIES Treating and preventing complications ABILITY OF 12 WEEKS MODERATE EXERCISE AND/OR GENISTEIN (SOY) TO REVERSE HYPERGLYCEMIA, HYPERINSULINEMIA, FATTY LIvER DISEASE AND MICROBIOME CHANGES INDUCED BY CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF HIGH FAT HIGH SUGAR DIET THE FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MICROENVIRONMENTAL CROSS-TALK IN MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELL MEDIATED DIABETIC WOUND HEALING INVESTIGATING THE INHIBITORY ROLE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE PHOSPHATASES IN DISTAL SIGNALING OF OBESE INDIVIDUALS Targeting TEAD1 to Suppress NASH Progression in Diabetes A deep learning-based closed-loop artificial pancreas system for unannounced meals and exercise Preclinical targeting of immune-adipose interaction for the treatment of T2D New insights in the pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus PPAR gamma deacetylation: a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetic vascular complications Testing novel immunotherapy to treat diabetes-induced kidney failure Targeting Mitochondrial Dynamics to Reverse Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Obesity ISLET CELL RESEARCH CIRCADIAN REGULATION OF PANCREATIC ISLET-GUT AXIS IN DIABETES DEVELOPMENT FAQs Videos

Diabetes Action is committed to funding promising and innovative diabetes research with a special interest in integrativeand nutritional therapies to prevent, treat, and cure diabetes and its complications.

Cure for Type 1 Diabetes

A Program for the Cure of Type 1 Diabetes Using a Generic Drug: Phase II

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (1)

Researcher:
Denise L. Faustman, MD, PhD., Associate Professor
Harvard Medical School and Director Immunobiology Laboratory
Massachusetts General Hospital
Charlestown, MA

Purpose:
In August 2012, results of the Phase I trial showed that the pancreas of long-term diabetics was able to transiently make insulin after two doses of the Bacillus Camlette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. In 2018 a follow up report on a total of 232 participants both treated and untreated with BCG, published in the journal Vaccines, showed positive results in lowering blood sugars in subjects with type 1 diabetes to almost normal levels while also reducing the amount of insulin needed about one-third after 5 to 8 years from the initial treatment with the BCG vaccine without any reports of severe hypoglycemia. The 2015 FDA approved Phase II clinical trial, whichis now fully enrolled with 150 participants with long-term type 1 diabetes, will determine the dose and frequency of doses required to reverse type 1 diabetes. It is still necessary to obtain funding to track these patients for an additional two years with the ultimate goal of bringing BCG to market as an approved treatment for type 1 diabetes. Five additional clinic trials with BCG/placebo to over 150 subjects are currently ongoing.

Paper Published 2018
Paper Published 2018

TACKLING BETA CELL DEATH IN TYPE 1 DIABETES

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (2)

Researcher:
Angela Lombardi, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY

Purpose:
Over the past four decades, the number of people with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased by 4% per year, making it an important public health challenge. Currently, no curative therapy exists for T1D and the only available treatment is insulin replacement, which, though life saving, is often associated with fatal high or low glucose levels. The aim of this research project is to treat or prevent autoimmunity in T1D by blocking antigen presentation using novel D-peptides, specifically by blocking the HLA-DQ8 peptide binding pocket from presenting diabetogenic peptides to auto reactive T-cells. Our hypothesis is that D-peptides are specific to the cause of T1D, and should not cause general immunosuppression, reducing or eliminating the need for insulin replacement therapy. The novel D-peptide approach can be easily expanded to patients with other autoimmune diseases carrying HLA-DQ8 or other HLA class II alleles, therefore, representing a new strategy to treat autoimmunity in general.

IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS THAT TRIGGER BETA CELL DAMAGE AND TYPE 1 DIABETES

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (3)

Researcher:
Mihaela Stefan-Lifshitz, PhD
Associate Professor
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY

Purpose:
The rise in the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D), especially in industrialized countries, can only be explained by a prevailing influence of environmental factors interacting with common genetic variants that predispose to T1D. Preliminary epidemiological data support an association between chemical exposure and T1D and there is evidence that such exposures can impact Beta-cell function and contribute to the development of autoimmunity. Despite these correlations, there are no studies directed towards understanding the role of industrial chemical exposure in T1D development. This leaves a gap in our understanding of the T1D etiology and its increasing incidence. Dr. Stefan-Lifshitz has developed a strategy which integrates complementary approaches to efficiently evaluate the association of environmental chemicals and chemical mixtures with T1D development and to dissect the mechanisms by which they trigger T1D in susceptible individuals. These studies will set the rationale for development of prevention strategies based on the mechanisms causing the disease.

Understanding the roles of Cathepsin H in triggering Type 1 Diabetes

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (4)

(Video) Rina and Avner Schneur Center for Diabetes Research

Researcher:
Jody Ye, PhD
Instructor of Endocrinology
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY

Purpose:
The etiology of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) has both genetic and environmental components, but their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A better understanding of these mechanisms will help the development of innovative therapies to improve beta-cell function. A T1D candidate gene, CTSH, encodes the Cathepsin H enzyme (CatH) in beta-cells. CTSH is associated with early diabetes onset and rapid loss of first-phase insulin response. Dr. Ye’s previously work suggest that CTSH may need to be expressed at an optimal level, both low and high CatH could lead to beta-cell damage. CTSH can be suppressed by inflammatory cytokines, which subsequently promote beta-cell death. However, high CTSH was found in individuals carrying the T1D susceptible variant. In the present study, Dr. Ye will investigate whether high CatH renders beta-cells a greater immunogenicity, triggering T1D. The results of this work could lead to the development of CatH blockers to prevent / delay diabetes.

Diabetes Prevention

IDENTIFICATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF T2D

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (5)

Researcher:
Dongmin Liu, PhD
Professor
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
Blacksburg, VA

Purpose:
Type 2 diabetes is one of the fastest growing health problem in the US. It is a result of insulin resistance and loss of insulin secreting beta-cells. The goal of this research is to identify low-cost, natural compounds to prevent and treat T2D. Dr. Liu discovered for the first time that hispidulin, a compound isolated from the herb Salvia plebaia, which is also abundant in oregano, acts in the gut to promote beta-cell function and ameliorates T2D, while sulforaphane, a small molecule derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a potent insulin sensitizer in the body of T2D mice. In this project Dr. Liu will investigate whether a combination treatment with hispidulin and sulforaphane is more effective in preventing T2D development by simultaneously improving insulin sensitivity and preserving functional beta-cell mass in T2D mice. The results from this grant could lead to developing strategy for using these natural products as an alternative or complementary therapy for T2D.

UNDERSTANDING BCAA REGULATION - A STEP TOWARD DECIPHERING DIABETES

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (6)

Researcher:
Andrew C. Shin, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Director, Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Facility
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, Texas

Purpose:
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids that our bodies do not produce, thus we need to obtain through diet. Recent studies show that circulating BCAAs are elevated in obese and diabetic individuals, and that BCAA supplementation through diet can lead to insulin resistance and abnormally high glucose levels. These findings indicate that BCAAs may have a causal role in the development of obesity and diabetes, but how and why they are elevated to begin with is unknown. Dr. Shin has discovered earlier that insulin action in the brain region called the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) controls circulating BCAAs. The present study proposes to identify and test the role of specific neuronal populations within the MBH for BCAA regulation. Findings from this study would elucidate the neuronal BCAA regulatory pathway and help develop new pharmacological/dietary strategies to decrease BCAAs in order to prevent/treat metabolic disorders.

Complementary / Nutrition Research

THE EFFECTS OF METFORMIN AND BERBERINE ON THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ZUCKER DIABETIC FATTY RATS

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (7)

Researcher:
Guoxun Chen, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Dept. of Nutrition
The University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Knoxville, TN

Purpose:
The pandemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a public health concern. Nutrients and bioactive compounds are critical in the prevention and management of T2DM. Metformin and berberine are two bioactive compounds used to treat T2DM. Vitamin E (VE) includes tocopherols and tocotrienols, and functions as an antioxidant. In our previous project, we have investigated the roles of metformin and a-tocopherol in the prevention of T2DM in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF). Metformin can cause lactic acidosis, which leads to kidney injury in T2DM, and berberine may have the same anti diabetic effect as metformin to prevent and treat T2DM without side effects in ZDF rats. This proposal will test (1) whether tocotrienols, tocotrienols + a-tocopherol, and berberine can prevent T2DM in ZDF rats; (2) whether a-tocopherol, tocotrienols, tocotrinols + a-tocopherol or berberine treat T2DM in ZDF rats.

GLYCEMIC INDEX AND POST-PRANDIAL INFLAMMATION IN ADOLESCENT TYPE 1 DIABETES

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (8)

Researcher:
Robert P. Hoffman, MD
Professor of Pediatrics
Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital|
Columbus, Ohio

Purpose:
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in patients with type 1 diabetes. Increased inflammation causes future atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Inflammation increases with increased glucose following a meal. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes have increased inflammation. The glycemic index quantifies the expected rise in glucose for a specific food 2 hours after a meal with a smaller increase for low glycemic index foods. The effects of low glycemic index meals on inflammation following a meal have not been studied in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Inflammation before and after low and high glycemic index meals will be studied in 20 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Changes in vascular and renal function will also be measured. If improvements in inflammation, vascular and renal function are found, this would strongly indicate that low glycemic index diets have the potential to reduce complications in type 1 diabetes.

COMPLEMENTARY MANUKA HONEY EMBEDDED DERMAL REGENERATION TEMPLATES TO IMPROVE DIABETIC WOUND HEALING

(Video) The Future of Diabetes Research - Dr. Seung Kim (Stanford Medicine)

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (9)

Researcher:
Laurie P. Shornick, PhD
Associate Professor of Biology
Saint Louis University
St. Louis, MO

Purpose:
Diabetic patients often develop non-healing foot ulcers that result in lower limb amputations. Unfortunately, the 5 year survival rate after lower limb amputation is less than 50%, so there is a critical need to develop wound dressings that will improve healing. Honey has been used for centuries as a complementary treatment for wound healing; however, it is sticky and difficult to apply. When honey warms to body temperature, it may also leak out of the wound. Dr. Shornick proposes an innovative three-dimensional wound dressing containing New Zealand manuka honey which has special properties. The dressing will provide a structure for cells to migrate into the wound, and the honey will provide anti-bacterial protection and will promote the formation of new tissue and blood vessels. Because pigs have skin very similar to human skin, a diabetic pig model will be used to test the efficacy of the honey-embedded wound dressings.

NOVEL FUNCTIONS OF ROSMARINIC ACID AND ITS ANALOG AS DIABETES-PREVENTION NUTRACEUTICALS; IN VIVO EFFICACY STUDIES

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (10)

Researcher:
Bin Xu, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Principal Investigator
Biomanufacturing Research Institute and Technology Enterprise (BRITE)
North Carolina Central University
Durham, NC

Purpose:
The goal of this project is to investigate the novel functions of botanical compound rosmarinic acid (RA) and its analog RA-amide, in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. Due to a rapidly aging population and the modern sedentary lifestyle, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related neurodegeneration are reaching epidemic proportions. Currently, there is no known cure for these diseases. One potential molecule link between these diseases is a molecule called amylin. Excessive secretion of this molecule in T2D patients can lead to the formation of toxic aggregates, which can deposit in the pancreas and the brain and cause damages in these tissues. Dr. Xu discovered that both RA and its analog RA-amide potently inhibit amylin aggregation and reduces aggregation-induced toxicity in vitro. This study will determine how effective RA and RA-amide are in ameliorating diabetes and related neurodegeneration in a diabetic animal model.

Paper Published 2021
Paper Published 2021

Treating and preventing complications

ABILITY OF 12 WEEKS MODERATE EXERCISE AND/OR GENISTEIN (SOY) TO REVERSE HYPERGLYCEMIA, HYPERINSULINEMIA, FATTY LIvER DISEASE AND MICROBIOME CHANGES INDUCED BY CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF HIGH FAT HIGH SUGAR DIET

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (11)

Researcher:
Layla Al-Nakkash, Ph.D.
Professor of Physiology
Midwestern University
Glendale, AZ

Purpose:
Clinically, millions of individuals have type 2 diabetes or obesity-related diabetes, and the impact to overall health is significant. These disorders are complex and provision of effective treatments is difficult. Dr. Al-Nakkash will use a mouse model of diabetic-obesity; mice will be given a “Western diet” by feeding them a high amount of fat and sugar for three months. At this time point in time, the lab will examine the effects of either consuming genistein (a naturally occurring compound found in soy), participating in regular moderate exercise (or both), or merely eliminating fat and sugar in the diet, on key markers of diabetes, obesity fatty liver and gut health. Dr. Al-Nakkash’s lab will use standard laboratory techniques to assess both gut and overall health in this model of

THE FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF MICROENVIRONMENTAL CROSS-TALK IN MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELL MEDIATED DIABETIC WOUND HEALING

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (12)

Researcher:
James Ankrum, PhD
Associate Professor
Roy J. Carver Dept. of Biomedical Engineering
Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center
Pappajohn Biomedical Institute
University of Iowa Technology Institute
Iowa City, Iowa

(Video) The Wrap – Diabetes research and care at Michigan Medicine

Purpose:
Diabetic wounds are the leading cause of non-traumatic amputation affecting patients with diabetes. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) transplanted into diabetic wounds have been shown to promote healing and resolution of wounds that otherwise would not heal, however the mechanisms at play are not fully understood. Dr. Ankrum seeks to understand a newly hypothesized mechanism of action that relies on monocytes and macrophages clearing donor MSCs through phagocytosis resulting in a shift in macrophage behavior. MSC are known to only live for a few days after transplantation, but recent evidence suggests that the clearance of MSCs by host macrophages induces a shift in macrophage phenotype that can last long after the MSCs are gone. The role of MSC clearing by monocytes and macrophages on reprogramming macrophages to a pro-regenerative phenotype will be examined using in vitro models that mimic many aspects of diabetes. The results of this study will contribute to tailored therapiesfor patients with type 1 diabetes.

INVESTIGATING THE INHIBITORY ROLE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE PHOSPHATASES IN DISTAL SIGNALING OF OBESE INDIVIDUALS

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (13)

Researcher:
Leslie Consitt, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
Athens, OH

Purpose:
Dr. Consitt has been studying glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, the primary target for insulin action, with a focus on distal insulin signaling such as AS160. The current study seeks to identify the protein phosphatases (PPS) that inhibit insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation in humans, and difference in the interaction of Ppl and AS160 between lean and obese humans. In the long run, chemicals targeting PPS might be used to alleviate insulin resistance and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Based on the previous results in rats demonstrating PP1 as a potential inhibitor of AS160, Dr. Consitt seeks to confirm that this is also true in humans and further identify the subtypes of PPS involved. With solid preliminary data, Dr. Consitt hypothesizes that obese insulin-resistant humans have increased PP1alpha-AS160 interaction in skeletal muscle; decreasing PP1alpha can increase insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation. Dr. Consitt is especially interested in using this project for outreach and education of the Athens, Ohio community.

Targeting TEAD1 to Suppress NASH Progression in Diabetes

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (14)

Researcher:
Weiqin Chen, PhD
Associate Professor
Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University
Augusta, GA

Purpose:
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) often occurs in patients with metabolic diseases and is highly associated with diabetes. How NASH interplays with diabetes is not clear. There is a need to identify new players and develop novel treatment regimens for NASH in diabetes. Dr. Chen’s lab has found TEAD1 expression goes up in mouse and human NASH livers, and liver cells without TEAD1 are protected from saturate fat-induced cell death, a common type of liver damage in diabetes. Therefore, Dr. Chen wants to examine whether TEAD1 expression is further elevated in diabetic mouse and human NASH livers, and whether increased TEAD1 expression in diabetic liver will make NASH occur more often and severe. Most of all, this study will test when liver TEAD1 is absent or inhibited by a drug, whether there will be less NASH incidence. This study will provide new therapeutic targets and options to treat or delay NASH progression in diabetes.

A deep learning-based closed-loop artificial pancreas system for unannounced meals and exercise

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (15)

Researcher:
Guim Kwon, Ph.D.
Professor
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Edwardsville, IL

Purpose:
A closed-loop artificial pancreas system (APS) provides a closest-to-cure treatment for type 1 diabetes. The gap in reaching this goal is developing an algorithm that handles high and low blood glucose (BG) levels caused by meals and exercise. As a step towards closing this gap, Dr. Kwon proposes a proof-of principle study using a rat APS established previously. This study will develop an individualized deep neural network (DNN) for predicting BG levels based on past BG and insulin injection and apply a model predictive control (MPC) method that determines the amount of insulin injection based on the projected BG levels in the setting of unannounced meals or treadmill exercise. Using DNN with an agility to learn and adapt to changing environment in the design of algorithm and a rat APS as a dynamic and versatile in vivo testing platform are innovative approaches in this field.

Preclinical targeting of immune-adipose interaction for the treatment of T2D

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (16)

Researcher:
Prashant Rajbhandari, PhD
Assistant Professor
Director, Metabolic Assessment Core
Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism Institute
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
New York, NY

Purpose:
Thermogenic fat cells dissipate excess calories as heat and confers protection against obesity and diabetes. Dr. Rajbhandari’s work have shown that local crosstalk between cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing immune cells and fat cells is a determinant of thermogenesis and systemic energy and glucose balance. Deletion of fat IL-10 signaling protects against obesity and insulin resistance, and elicits fat thermogenesis. To further test the hypothesis that fat-specific IL10 receptor directly senses IL-10 in the fat to limit thermogenesis and insulin sensitivity, this study entails two interrelated aims to examine i) metabolic consequences of fat-specific deletion of IL10 receptor in mice by genetic and pharmacological approach, and ii) mechanisms underlying IL-10 inhibition of fat thermogenic gene program. Dr. Rajbhandari's lab has identified IL-10 axis as a novel regulator of fat tissue. This study aims to explore preclinical targeting of immune signaling and fat tissue function in the setting of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

New insights in the pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (17)

(Video) Reversing Diabetes - Dr.Ravi Sankar Endocrinologist MRCP(UK) CCT - GIM (UK)

Researcher:
Gaetano Santulli, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY

Purpose:
The main goal of this project is to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diabetes in patients affected by COVID-19. The role of diabetes in COVID-19 is two-fold: not only do people with diabetes present an augmented risk of a severe outcome of COVID-19, but COVID-19 has been shown to also increase the risk of developing diabetes. Dr. Santulli’s hypothesis is that the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 is causing endothelial dysfunction and that extracellular vesicles secreted by impaired endothelial cells can cause beta cell dysfunction. Dr. Santulli’s lab has preliminary data supporting this hypothesis and has identified some specific molecules contained in endothelial microvesicles that can be targeted to prevent and cure the onset of diabetes in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the unprecedented relationship between endothelial cells and pancreatic beta cells can also be harnessed and targeted in diabetes mellitus non caused by COVID-19.

PPAR gamma deacetylation: a potential therapeutic target to treat diabetic vascular complications

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (18)

Researcher:
Maria Alicia Carrillo Sepulveda, BSN, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine
Old Westbury, NY

Purpose:
Obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D) has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. A prevalent problem of T2D is vascular complications, such as hypertension, which account for 70% of death among diabetic patients. There are no specific drugs to treat hypertension in diabetic patients. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists, were the most popularly prescribed antidiabetic drugs due its lowering glucose and blood pressure effects. Unfortunately, adverse effects of TZDs have restricted its use in the last decade. Recent studies identified that PPARgamma deacetylation abolish TZD’s adverse effects. Vascular studies from Dr. Sepulveda’s lab demonstrated that PPARgamma deacetylation has vascular protective effects. This study will investigate whether PPARgamma deacetylation protects against T2D-induced vascular dysfunction and hypertension by using genetic mice with deacetylation-mimetic PPARgamma mutations. Findings from this study will elucidate the vascular effects of PPARgamma deacetylation and help develop new pharmacological strategies to treat diabetic vascular complications.

Testing novel immunotherapy to treat diabetes-induced kidney failure

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (19)

Researcher:
Kai Y. Xu, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Surgery
University of Maryland School of Medicine
Baltimore, MD

Purpose:
Diabetes causes kidney failure which results in the kidneys no longer being able to remove waste from the body. (Na+ + K+)-ATPase (NKA) is a key enzyme found in large amounts in kidneys. Studies have shown that dysfunction of NKA is associated with diabetic kidney failure, indicating that NKA activity is essential to kidney function. Dr. Xu has discovered a NKA activator and developed a NKA activator-based immunotherapy. Recent studies reveal that newly developed immunotherapy protects kidney function against progression of type 1 diabetes-induced kidney failure in female NOD mice. Dr. Xu hypothesizes that this immunotherapy may be a universal disease-modifying intervention for both type-1 and type-2 diabetes-induced kidney failure. The proposed investigation will test the hypothesis and examine the efficacy of immunotherapy on both type 1 and type 2 diabetes induced kidney failure. This study challenges the critical barrier of existing treatment by testing a novel immunotherapy to advance our knowledge and improve human health.

Targeting Mitochondrial Dynamics to Reverse Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Obesity

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (20)

Researcher:
Kai Zou, PhD
Assistant Professor
University of Massachusetts Boston
Boston, MA

Purpose:

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are major public health problems. Current treatments are either not sustainable, too invasive and/or lead to complications, suggesting there is an urgent need for new treatments. Skeletal muscle is the most important organ for metabolism and taking glucose from blood. Therefore, it is important to find new targets in skeletal muscle to develop drugs for type 2 diabetes. Dr. Zou has been focusing on mitochondrial dynamics, especially mitochondrial fission (i.e., fragmentation). Dr. Zou’s lab found that Drp1, a protein controls mitochondrial fission, is increased in skeletal muscle from obese humans and inversely correlated with muscle insulin sensitivity, suggesting Drp1 may be an important regulator of insulin action. This study will use genetic and pharmacological approaches in mice to test the hypotheses that inhibiting Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission is sufficient to improve skeletal muscle insulin action and whole-body glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance.

ISLET CELL RESEARCH

CIRCADIAN REGULATION OF PANCREATIC ISLET-GUT AXIS IN DIABETES DEVELOPMENT

Current Diabetes Research — Diabetes Action (21)

Researcher:
Li Wen, MD, PhD
Associate Professor in Medicine
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, CT

Purpose:
Dr. Wen’s lab recently discovered that pancreatic islets from the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, an animal model for human type 1 diabetes, express a high level of biological clock genes. The expression of these genes changes at different times of the day. These same genes are in the gut of NOD mouse but they are expressed at very different times of the day compared with the pancreatic islets. Both the gut and pancreas are in the digestive system and they are vulnerable to be attacked by immune cells, which alter gut stability or damage the insulin-producing cells. In this study, Dr. Wen will investigate how the clock genes regulate the functions of pancreatic islets and gut differently, with the ultimate goal to provide new knowledge to improve the effectiveness of existing therapy and to design more effective new therapy to treat or prevent type 1 diabetes.

(Video) Preparing States for Diabetes Action Plan Legislation

FAQs

What is the latest research on diabetes? ›

Summary: Researchers have discovered a novel and druggable insulin inhibitory receptor, named inceptor. The blocking of inceptor function leads to an increased sensitisation of the insulin signaling pathway in pancreatic beta cells.

Is a cure for type 2 diabetes Close? ›

Although there's no cure for type 2 diabetes, studies show it's possible for some people to reverse it. Through diet changes and weight loss, you may be able to reach and hold normal blood sugar levels without medication. This doesn't mean you're completely cured. Type 2 diabetes is an ongoing disease.

Can diabetes be reversed? ›

According to recent research, type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, but individuals can have glucose levels that return to non-diabetes range, (complete remission) or pre-diabetes glucose level (partial remission) The primary means by which people with type 2 diabetes achieve remission is by losing significant amounts of ...

Does diabetes have a cure? ›

Even though there's no diabetes cure, diabetes can be treated and controlled, and some people may go into remission. To manage diabetes effectively, you need to do the following: Manage your blood sugar levels.

How Close Is there a cure for diabetes? ›

There's no cure yet, but our scientists are working on a ground-breaking weight management study, to help people put their type 2 diabetes into remission. Remission is when blood glucose (or blood sugar) levels are in a normal range again. This doesn't mean diabetes has gone for good.

What is the permanent cure for diabetes? ›

No cure for diabetes currently exists, but the disease can go into remission. When diabetes goes into remission, it means that the body does not show any signs of diabetes, although the disease is technically still present.

How old do diabetics live? ›

Upon analysis, investigators found the average person with type 1 diabetes was 42.8 years of age and had a life expectancy from now of 32.6 years. In comparison, people the same age without diabetes were expected to live 40.2 years from now.

Can walking cure diabetes? ›

Research studies have shown that walking can be beneficial in bringing down blood glucose and therefore improving diabetes control. In a study involving people with type 1 diabetes, participants were assigned to either take a 30 minute walk after eating or have the same meal but remain inactive.

Does replacing a pancreas cure diabetes? ›

A pancreas transplant can cure diabetes and eliminate the need for insulin shots. However, because of the risks involved with surgery, most people with type 1 diabetes do not have a pancreas transplant shortly after they are diagnosed. Pancreas transplant is rarely done alone.

Is fasting good for diabetes? ›

The American Diabetes Association doesn't recommend fasting as a technique for diabetes management. The association says lifestyle changes, including medical nutrition therapy and more physical activity, as the cornerstones for weight loss and good diabetes control.

Can metformin reverse diabetes? ›

Metformin is excluded from reversal criteria because it is not diabetes-specific—many patients choose to stay on this medication for reasons other than blood sugar control.

Is honey good for diabetics type 2? ›

Regina Castro, M.D. Generally, there's no advantage to substituting honey for sugar in a diabetes eating plan. Both honey and sugar will affect your blood sugar level.

How can I reverse diabetes naturally? ›

Scientists have not yet found a way to cure or reverse type 1 diabetes. Someone with type 2 diabetes may reverse the condition by losing weight. A person is in remission if their blood sugar levels are normal for six months or longer. However, remission is not a cure for type 2 diabetes because the disease may return.

Can your pancreas start working again type 2 diabetes? ›

The results from this latest study suggest that – if remission is achieved – the insulin-producing capacity of the pancreas can be restored to levels similar to those in people who had never been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

What foods are good for Reversing diabetes? ›

The 10 Best Foods to Control Diabetes and Lower Blood Sugar
  • Non-Starchy Vegetables. Non-starchy vegetables are one of the most healthy foods you can eat as a diabetic. ...
  • Leafy Greens. ...
  • Fatty Fish. ...
  • Nuts and Eggs. ...
  • Seeds. ...
  • Natural Fats. ...
  • Apple Cider Vinegar. ...
  • Cinnamon and Turmeric.
29 Jun 2020

What is the latest treatment for diabetes type 2? ›

In May 2022, the FDA approved Lilly's new medication Mounjaro (also known as tirzepatide) for type 2 diabetes management, in addition to diet and exercise. This first-in-class medication has been shown to improve glucose levels and also dramatically improve weight in clinical trials.

What is the new diabetes drug that causes weight loss? ›

Tirzepatide, sold as Mounjaro, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat type 2 diabetes but a study shows it can also help with weight loss, quite dramatically.

Is insulin still made from pigs? ›

Insulin was originally derived from the pancreases of cows and pigs. Animal-sourced insulin is made from preparations of beef or pork pancreases, and has been used safely to manage diabetes for many years. With the exception of beef/pork insulin, which is no longer available, they are still being used safely today.

What is the best treatment for diabetes? ›

The best current treatment for type one diabetes is an automated insulin delivery system. This system includes a continuous glucose monitor, insulin pump, and a computer algorithm that continually adjusts insulin responding to the continuous glucose monitoring signal.

Can diabetics drink alcohol? ›

Drink in Moderation

Most people with diabetes can enjoy some alcohol. Rules are the same as for everyone else: one drink per day for women; two for men. But you need to know how alcohol affects your blood sugar. A sugary drink might spike your blood sugar.

What are the main causes of diabetes? ›

Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes.
  • Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity. ...
  • Insulin resistance. ...
  • Genes and family history. ...
  • Insulin resistance. ...
  • Genes and family history. ...
  • Genetic mutations. ...
  • Hormonal diseases.

What is the most common cause of death in diabetics? ›

Thus, cardiovascular disease could be the most common cause of death in diabetic patients.

Can you live a full life with diabetes? ›

Type 2 diabetes can have serious health implications that can affect life expectancy. However, with management, many people with diabetes can live long lives.

Can diabetics drink zero Coke? ›

Diabetics should avoid coke or any soft drinks as much as possible. Coke Zero is sugar-free. However, the sugar substitutes it contains may not necessarily be a healthier option for people looking to reduce their blood sugar levels.

Does water lower blood sugar? ›

Did you know it's Sugar Free February and that drinking water can help to lower blood sugar levels by diluting the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood stream. By drinking water lots of water you can reduce your blood sugar as it indirectly will reduce insulin resistance and help reduce hunger.

What is the best time to exercise for diabetics? ›

In general, the best time to exercise is one to three hours after eating, when your blood sugar level is likely to be higher. If you use insulin, it's important to test your blood sugar before exercising.

What exercises should diabetics avoid? ›

Very strenuous activity, heavy lifting or straining and isometric exercise. Most moderate activity such as walking, moderate lifting, weight lifting with light weights and high repetitions, stretching.

Has a pancreas ever started working again? ›

The pancreas can be triggered to regenerate itself through a type of fasting diet, say US researchers. Restoring the function of the organ - which helps control blood sugar levels - reversed symptoms of diabetes in animal experiments. The study, published in the journal Cell, says the diet reboots the body.

Can your pancreas start producing insulin again? ›

Researchers have discovered that patients with type 1 diabetes can regain the ability to produce insulin. They showed that insulin-producing cells can recover outside the body. Hand-picked beta cells from the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.

Can metformin damage the pancreas? ›

As any other medication, Metformin is associated with undesirable side effects and it has been reported in few cases to cause lactic acidosis and pancreatitis.

What raises blood sugar quickly? ›

Your doctor may tell you to have really sugary foods or drinks (like regular soda, orange juice, or cake frosting) or might give you glucose tablets or gel to take — all of these can help to raise your blood sugar level fast, which is what you need to do when it's low. Wait about 10 minutes to let the sugar work.

Why my blood sugar is high in the morning? ›

The dawn phenomenon

In the early hours of the morning, hormones, including cortisol and growth hormone, signal the liver to boost the production of glucose, which provides energy that helps you wake up. This triggers beta cells in the pancreas to release insulin in order to keep blood glucose levels in check.

Why is my blood sugar so high when I'm not eating any carbs? ›

While protein typically has very little effect on blood glucose, in the absence of carbohydrates (such as a low carb meal) or insulin, it can raise blood glucose. Many individuals with diabetes who eat carb-free meals will take a bit of insulin to cover the difference.

Does metformin cause kidney damage? ›

Metformin doesn't cause kidney damage. The kidneys process and clear the medication out of your system through your urine. If your kidneys don't function properly, there's concern that metformin can build up in your system and cause a condition called lactic acidosis.

What are the dangers of taking metformin? ›

Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause lactic acidosis. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are severe and quick to appear, and usually occur when other health problems not related to the medicine are present and are very severe, such as a heart attack or kidney failure.

What can you take instead of metformin? ›

Alternative options
  • Prandin (repaglinide) ...
  • Canagliflozin (Invokana) ...
  • Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) ...
  • Empagliflozin (Jardiance) ...
  • Actos (pioglitazone) ...
  • Herbal options.

Can diabetics eat potatoes? ›

Can people with diabetes eat potatoes? Although potatoes are a starchy vegetable, a person with diabetes can still enjoy them as part of a healthful diet. People with diabetes need to be aware of their carbohydrate intake at each meal.

Is watermelon good for diabetes? ›

Watermelon is safe for people with diabetes to eat in moderation. However, it is best to consume watermelon and other high GI fruits alongside foods that contain plenty of nutritious fats, fiber, and protein.

Is oatmeal good for diabetics? ›

Oatmeal from whole grain oats may be a helpful addition to the diet of someone with diabetes. Oatmeal has a low glycemic index (GI) score, and the soluble fiber and beneficial compounds in oats may help people control markers of diabetes.

Can lemon water lower blood sugar? ›

Lemon juice significantly lowered the mean blood glucose concentration peak by 30% (p < 0.01) and delayed it more than 35 min (78 vs. 41 min with water, p < 0.0001).

Is Olive good for diabetics? ›

Recent studies have shown that an olive oil-rich diet prevents diabetes, as it reduces glucose levels, LDL (low density lipoprotein) and triglycerides. Due to its effect on cholesterol , olive oil prevents a series of diseases that are very frequent in diabetic patients.

How do I bring my A1C down? ›

7 Ways to Improve Your A1C
  1. Exercise. Physical activity helps your body use insulin more efficiently, so it can better process the glucose in your blood. ...
  2. Eat Right. ...
  3. Take Medications as Prescribed. ...
  4. Manage Your Stress. ...
  5. Stick to a Schedule. ...
  6. Drink in Moderation. ...
  7. Monitor Your Numbers.

What foods repair the pancreas? ›

What to eat if you have pancreatitis. To get your pancreas healthy, focus on foods that are rich in protein, low in animal fats, and contain antioxidants. Try lean meats, beans and lentils, clear soups, and dairy alternatives (such as flax milk and almond milk). Your pancreas won't have to work as hard to process these ...

How do you clean your pancreas? ›

Some of the best things to do to cleanse your pancreas is to drink plenty of water and eat fresh fruits and vegetables. It's particularly important to eat produce with high water content. Additionally, increase your intake of fiber-rich foods. Fiber is necessary for proper gut health and digestion.

How can I get my pancreas to produce more insulin? ›

14 Natural Ways to Improve Your Insulin Sensitivity
  1. Get more sleep. A good night's sleep is important for your health. ...
  2. Exercise more. ...
  3. Reduce stress. ...
  4. Lose a few pounds. ...
  5. Eat more soluble fiber. ...
  6. Add more colorful fruit and vegetables to your diet. ...
  7. Cut down on carbs. ...
  8. Reduce your intake of added sugars.

What fruits to avoid if you are diabetic? ›

However, fruit can also be high in sugar. People with diabetes must keep a watchful eye on their sugar intake to avoid blood sugar spikes.
...
These include:
  • apples.
  • apricots.
  • avocados.
  • bananas.
  • blackberries.
  • blueberries.
  • cantaloupes.
  • cherries.
29 Mar 2021

What are some of the latest advances in the treatment of diabetes? ›

So far, they are exploring at least five different approaches:
  • Regeneration of existing beta cells.
  • Regeneration of beta cells using stem cells.
  • “Reprogramming” beta cells with differentiated cell types.
  • Replacing beta cells with cells from nonhuman donors.
  • Replacing beta cells with cells from deceased donors.
12 Jan 2017

What is the latest treatment for diabetes type 2? ›

In May 2022, the FDA approved Lilly's new medication Mounjaro (also known as tirzepatide) for type 2 diabetes management, in addition to diet and exercise. This first-in-class medication has been shown to improve glucose levels and also dramatically improve weight in clinical trials.

Can diabetes be cured by walking? ›

Research studies have shown that walking can be beneficial in bringing down blood glucose and therefore improving diabetes control. In a study involving people with type 1 diabetes, participants were assigned to either take a 30 minute walk after eating or have the same meal but remain inactive.

What is the best treatment for diabetes? ›

The best current treatment for type one diabetes is an automated insulin delivery system. This system includes a continuous glucose monitor, insulin pump, and a computer algorithm that continually adjusts insulin responding to the continuous glucose monitoring signal.

Is there a cure for diabetes anywhere in the world? ›

Despite its huge impact on the global population, there is still no cure for any type of diabetes. Most treatments help patients manage the symptoms to a certain extent, but diabetics still face multiple long-term health complications.

How can I restore my insulin naturally? ›

14 Natural Ways to Improve Your Insulin Sensitivity
  1. Get more sleep. A good night's sleep is important for your health. ...
  2. Exercise more. ...
  3. Reduce stress. ...
  4. Lose a few pounds. ...
  5. Eat more soluble fiber. ...
  6. Add more colorful fruit and vegetables to your diet. ...
  7. Cut down on carbs. ...
  8. Reduce your intake of added sugars.

Does stem cell therapy work for type 2 diabetes? ›

Although stem cell therapy cannot cure it, receiving stem cell therapy for diabetes Type 2 from TruStem Cell Therapy has the potential to improve a patient's quality of life significantly by reducing symptoms and complications related to Type 2 diabetes, as well as slowing its progression.

What medication is replacing metformin? ›

Precose, Januvia, Victoza, Glucotrol XL, and Actos are some metformin alternatives. Get the full list here. Metformin is an oral prescription medication used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. It belongs to a class of drugs known as biguanides.

Which tablet is best for diabetes? ›

Metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza, others) is generally the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes. It works primarily by lowering glucose production in the liver and improving your body's sensitivity to insulin so that your body uses insulin more effectively.

Which medicine is best for type 2 diabetes? ›

Metformin. Metformin is the most common medicine for type 2 diabetes. It can help keep your blood sugar at a healthy level. It comes as tablets you take with or after meals.

Does water lower blood sugar? ›

Did you know it's Sugar Free February and that drinking water can help to lower blood sugar levels by diluting the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood stream. By drinking water lots of water you can reduce your blood sugar as it indirectly will reduce insulin resistance and help reduce hunger.

Is fasting good for diabetes? ›

The American Diabetes Association doesn't recommend fasting as a technique for diabetes management. The association says lifestyle changes, including medical nutrition therapy and more physical activity, as the cornerstones for weight loss and good diabetes control.

What is normal blood sugar 60 year old? ›

Normal ranges of blood sugar levels are between 70 and 130 mg/dL before eating meals. The American Diabetes Association recommends seniors have blood glucose levels of less than 180 mg/dL two hours after eating.

Are eggs good for diabetics? ›

Eggs are a low-carbohydrate food and have a very low glycemic index score. This makes them a good source of protein for people with diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) state that eggs are a suitable food for people with diabetes.

What is the safest diabetes medication? ›

by Drugs.com

Most experts consider metformin to be the safest medicine for type 2 diabetes because it has been used for many decades, is effective, affordable, and safe. Metformin is recommended as a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA).

What bread is good for diabetics? ›

The American Diabetes Association recommends choosing whole grain bread or 100 percent whole wheat bread instead of white bread. White bread is made from highly processed white flour and added sugar. Here are some delicious and healthy breads to try: Joseph's Flax, Oat Bran and Wheat Pita Bread.

Videos

1. Reversing Type 2 diabetes starts with ignoring the guidelines | Sarah Hallberg | TEDxPurdueU
(TEDx Talks)
2. Diabetes Action Canada Research Spotlight - Training and Mentoring
(Diabetes Action Canada)
3. Pharmacology - DRUGS FOR DIABETES (MADE EASY)
(Speed Pharmacology)
4. Diabetes Action Canada Research Spotlight -T1D & AI in Diabetic Retinopathy Screening -July 22, 2020
(Diabetes Action Canada)
5. Diabetes Research
(Veterans Health Administration)
6. Diabetes Drug Could Be Game Changer For Obesity And Weight Loss
(TODAY)

Top Articles

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Nathanael Baumbach

Last Updated: 12/12/2022

Views: 5775

Rating: 4.4 / 5 (75 voted)

Reviews: 82% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Nathanael Baumbach

Birthday: 1998-12-02

Address: Apt. 829 751 Glover View, West Orlando, IN 22436

Phone: +901025288581

Job: Internal IT Coordinator

Hobby: Gunsmithing, Motor sports, Flying, Skiing, Hooping, Lego building, Ice skating

Introduction: My name is Nathanael Baumbach, I am a fantastic, nice, victorious, brave, healthy, cute, glorious person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.