Health Literacy Measurement Tools (Revised) (2023)

Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. AHRQ-funded researchers have developed four tools to measure an aspect of health literacy—individuals' reading comprehension in a medical context. This page includes two new tools that allow direct comparison of health literacy in speakers of English and Spanish. These tools can be used for research, clinical, or program planning purposes.

For additional measures of individuals' health literacy, go to the Health Literacy Tool Shed, funded by the U.S. National Libraries of Medicine.

Health Literacy and How to Assess It

Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. AHRQ-funded researchers have developed a variety of tools to measure an aspect of health literacy—individuals' reading comprehension in a medical context.

The AHRQ-supported tools are for the assessment of health literacy in speakers of English and Spanish, the languages most frequently spoken in the United States.

These tools can be used for research, training, or program planning purposes as long as credit is given to AHRQ as the source. (Users of the tools who publish their findings can find a link listed with each tool to the paper that describes its initial development and validation.) The tools available from AHRQ are the:

  • Short Assessment of Health Literacy–Spanish and English
  • Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine–Short Form
  • Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish Adults

Note: Direct translation of these tools into another language may not produce a valid assessment of health literacy in the new language. Please contact AHRQ's Office of Communications and Knowledge Transfer for permission and to be put in contact with a technical expert before attempting a translation.

Short Assessment of Health Literacy–Spanish and English (SAHL-S&E)

The Short Assessment of Health Literacy–Spanish and English (SAHL–S&E) is a new instrument, consisting of comparable tests in English and Spanish, with good reliability and validity in both languages. Persons being examined in English or Spanish are presented with 18 test terms. For each term a key word with a related meaning and a distractor word unrelated in meaning to the test term. This tests the subject’s comprehension as well as pronunciation (decoding) of health-related terms. Administration of the test takes only 2-3 minutes and requires minimal training. Administration of these instruments could be facilitated by using laminated 4”-by-5” flash cards, with each card containing a medical test term printed in boldface on the top and the two association words—i.e., the key and the distracter—at the bottom.

SAHL–S&E validation study:
Lee S.-Y. D., Stucky B.D., Lee J. Y. et al. Short assessment of health literacy–Spanish and English: A comparable test of health literacy for Spanish and English speakers HSR 2010 August;45(4):1105–20. Pub Med ID (PMID): 20500222 [Full text available in PubMedCentral]

Contents:

(Select for PDF [36.33KB])
(Select for PDF [53.04KB])

SAHL-S Test Form

StemKey or Distracter"No sé"
(Don't know)
1. empleo__trabajo__educación__No sé
2. convulsiones__mareado__tranquilo__No sé
3. infección__mata__virus__No sé
4. medicamento__instrumento__tratamiento__No sé
5. alcoholismo__adicción__recreo__No sé
6. riñón_orina__fiebre__No sé
7. dosis__dormir__cantidad__No sé
8. aborto espontáneo__pérdida__matrimonio__No sé
9. estreñimiento__bloqueado__suelto__No sé
10. embarazo__parto__niñez__No sé
11. nervios__aburrido__ansiedad__No sé
12. nutrición__saludable__gaseosa__No sé
13. indicado__instrucción__decisión__No sé
14. hormonas__crecimiento__harmonía__No sé
15. abnormal__diferente__similar__No sé
16. diagnóstico__evaluación__recuperación__No sé
17. hemorroides__venas__corazón__No sé
18. sífilis__anticonceptivo__condón__No sé

The 18 items of SAHL-S, rank-ordered according to difficulty (keys and distracters are listed in the same random order as in the field interview)

The answers can be found by selecting the SAHL-S Answer Key.

Instruction for Administering SAHL-S

Here are directions for using SAHL-S with flash cards, as described earlier. The subjects should not be shown the whole list at one time.

(Video) Social Determinants of Health and New/Revised Items A, B, and D

Directions to the Interviewer:

Before the test, the interviewer should say to the examinee:

Le voy a mostrar tarjetas con 3 palabras en ellas. Primero, me gustaría que usted lea la palabra arriba en voz alta. Entonces, yo leeré las dos palabras debajo a usted y me gustaría que usted me dijera cuál de las dos palabras es más similar a la palabra arriba. Si usted no sabe la respuesta, por favor diga, ‘No sé’. No adivine.

Show the examinee the first card.

The interviewer should say to the examinee:

Ahora, por favor, lea la palabra arriba en voz alta.”

The interviewer should have a clipboard with a score sheet to record the examinee’s answers. The clipboard should be held such that the examinee cannot see or be distracted by the scoring procedure.The interviewer will then read the key and distracter (the two words at the bottom of the card) and then say:

“Cuál de las dos palabras es más similar a la palabra arriba? Si usted no sabe la respuesta, por favor diga, ‘No sé’.

The interviewer may repeat the instructions so that the examinee feels comfortable with the procedure.

Continue the test with the rest of the cards.

A correct answer for each test item is determined by both correct pronunciation and accurate association. Each correct answer gets one point. Once the test is completed, the interviewer should tally the total points to generate the SAHL-S score.

(Video) Tactics for Using Health Literacy

A score between 0 and 14 suggests the examinee has inadequate health literacy.

SAHL-E Word Sets & User's Guide

StemKey or DistracterDon't know
1. kidney__urine__fever__don't know
2. occupation__work__education__don't know
3. medication__instrument__treatment__don't know
4. nutrition__healthy__soda__don't know
5. miscarriage__loss__marriage__don't know
6.infection__plant__virus__don't know
7. alcoholism__addiction__recreation__don't know
8. pregnancy__birth__childhood__don't know
9. seizure__dizzy__calm__don't know
10. dose__sleep__amount__don't know
11. hormones__growth__harmony__don't know
12. abnormal__different__similar__don't know
13. directed__instruction__decision__don't know
14. nerves__bored__anxiety__don't know
15. constipation__blocked__loose__don't know
16. diagnosis__evaluation__recovery__don't know
17. hemorrhoids__veins__heart__don't know
18. syphilis__contraception__condom__don't know

The 18 items of SAHL-S, rank-ordered according to item difficulty (keys and distracters are listed in the same random order as in the field interview).

The answers can be found by selecting the SAHL-E Answer Key.

Instructions for Administering SAHL-E

Here are directions for using SAHL-E with flash cards, as described earlier. The subjects should not be shown the whole list at one time.

Directions to the Interviewer:

Before the test, the interviewer should say to the examinee:

“I’m going to show you cards with 3 words on them. First, I’d like you to read the top word out loud. Next, I’ll read the two words underneath and I’d like you to tell me which of the two words is more similar to or has a closer association with the top word. If you don’t know, please say ‘I don’t know’. Don’t guess.”

Show the examinee the first card.

The interviewer should say to the examinee:

“Now, please, read the top word out loud.”

The interviewer should have a clipboard with a score sheet to record the examinee’s answers. The clipboard should be held such that the examinee cannot see or be distracted by the scoring procedure.

(Video) DoctorSpeak: Health Literacy and Healthcare Professionals

The interviewer will then read the key and distracter (the two words at the bottom of the card) and then say:

“Which of the two words is most similar to the top word? If you don’t know the answer, please say ‘I don’t know’.”

The interviewer may repeat the instructions so that the examinee feels comfortable with the procedure.

Continue the test with the rest of the cards.

A correct answer for each test item is determined by both correct pronunciation and accurate association. Each correct answer gets one point. Once the test is completed, the interviewer should tally the total points to generate the SAHL-E score.

A score between 0 and 14 suggests the examinee has low health literacy.

Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine—Short Form (REALM-SF)

The Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine—Short Form (REALM-SF) is a 7-item word recognition test to provide clinicians with a valid quick assessment of patient health literacy. The REALM-SF has been validated and field tested in diverse research setting, and has excellent agreement with the 66-item REALM instrument in terms of grade-level assignments.

REALM-SF Validation study: Arozullah AM, Yarnold PR, Bennett CL, et al. Development and validation of a short-form, rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine. Med Care 2007 November;45(11):1026–33. PMID: 18049342

Note: The REALM-SF was developed with AHRQ funding, independently of REALM. To obtain permission to use the REALM, contact Dr. Terry Davis at tdavis1@lsuhsc.edu.

REALM-SF Score Sheet

Select for PDF Version [179 KB]

Patient ID #: _______________ Date: _______________ Examiner Initials: ____________

Behavior _____
Exercise _____
Menopause _____
Rectal _____
Antibiotics _____
Anemia _____
Jaundice _____

(Video) Health Literacy Tool: Communicating clearly- Part 2 of 5


TOTAL SCORE ______

Administering the REALM-SF:

Suggested Introduction:

"Providers often use words that patients don't understand. We are looking at words providers often use with their patients in order to improve communication between health care providers and patients. Here is a list of medical words.

Starting at the top of the list, please read each word aloud to me. If you don’t recognize a word, you can say 'pass' and move on to the next word."

Interviewer: Give the participant the word list. If the participant takes more than 5 seconds on a words, say "pass" and point to the next word. Hold this scoring sheet so that it is not visible to the participant.

Scores and Grade Equivalents for the REALM-SF

ScoreGrade range
0Third grade and below; will not be able to read most low-literacy materials; will need repeated oral instructions, materials composed primarily of illustrations, or audio or video tapes.
1-3Fourth to sixth grade; will need low-literacy materials, may not be able to read prescription labels.
4-6Seventh to eighth grade; will struggle with most patient education materials; will not be offended by low-literacy materials.
7High school; will be able to read most patient education materials.

Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish Adults (SAHLSA-50)

The Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish Adults (SAHLSA-50) is a validated health literacy assessment tool containing 50 items designed to assess a Spanish-speaking adult's ability to read and understand common medical terms. Administration of the test takes 3-6 minutes. The SAHLSA was based on the Rapid Estimates of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), known as the most easily administered tool for assessing health literacy in English. However, it is important to note that SAHLSA-50 results are not comparable with REALM results. Users who are interested in comparing the health literacy ability of English and Spanish speakers are advised to adopt SAHL-S&E.

SAHLSA-50 Validation Study: Lee S.-Y. D., Bender D.E., Ruiz R.E., et al. Development of an easy-to-use Spanish health literacy test. HSR 2006 Aug;41(4, Part I); 1392–412. PMID: 16899014 [Full text available in PubMedCentral]

Select for PDF Version [131.77KB].

SAHLSA-50 Form

StemKey or Distracter"No sé"
(Don't know)
próstata__glándula__circulación__No sé
empleo__trabajo__educación__No sé
menstrual__mensual__diario__No sé
gripe__sano__enfermo__No sé
avisar__medir__decir__No sé
comidas__cena__paseo__No sé
alcoholismo__adicción__recreo__No sé
grasa__naranja__manteca__No sé
asma__respirar__piel__No sé
cafeína__energía__agua__No sé
osteoporosis__hueso__músculo__No sé
depresión__apetito__sentimientos__No sé
estreñimiento__bloqueado__suelto__No sé
embarazo__parto__niñez__No sé
incesto__familia__vecinos__No sé
pastilla__tableta__galleta__No sé
testículo__óvulo__esperma__No sé
rectal__regadera__inodoro__No sé
ojo__oír__ver__No sé
irritación__rígido__adolorido__No sé
abnormal__diferente__similar__No sé
estrés__preocupación__feliz__No sé
aborto espontáneo__pérdida__matrimonio__No sé
ictericia__amarillo__blanco__No sé
papanicolaou__prueba__vacuna__No sé
impétigo__pelo__piel__No sé
indicado__instrucción__decisión__No sé
ataque__herida__sano__No sé
menopausia__señoras__niñas__No sé
apéndice__rascar__dolor__No sé
comportamiento__pensamiento__conducta__No sé
nutrición__saludable__gaseosa__No sé
diabetes__azúcar__sal__No sé
sífilis__anticonceptivo__condón__No sé
inflamatorio__hinchazón__sudor__No sé
hemorroides__venas__corazón__No sé
herpes__aire__sexo__No sé
alérgico__resistencia__reacción__No sé
riñón__orina__fiebre__No sé
calorías__alimentos__vitaminas__No sé
medicamento__instrumento__tratamiento__No sé
anemia__sangre__nervio__No sé
intestinos__digestión__sudor__No sé
potasio__mineral__proteína__No sé
colitis__intestino__vejiga__No sé
obesidad__peso__altura__No sé
hepatitis__pulmón__hígado__No sé
vesícula biliar__arteria__órgano__No sé
convulsiones__mareado__tranquilo__No sé
artritis__estómago__articulación__No sé

Scoring Key to SAHLSA-50 Form

(Correct answers are bolded)

(Video) Effective Health Communication and Health Literacy: Understanding the Connection (July 27, 2022)

StemKey or Distracter"No sé"
(Don't know)
1. próstata__glándula__circulación__No sé
2. empleo__trabajo__educación__No sé
3. menstrual__mensual__diario__No sé
4. gripe__sano__enfermo__No sé
5. avisar__medir__decir__No sé
6. comidas__cena__paseo__No sé
7. alcoholismo__adicción__recreo__No sé
8. grasa__naranja__manteca__No sé
9. asma__respirar__piel__No sé
10. cafeína__energía__agua__No sé
11. osteoporosis__hueso__músculo__No sé
12. depresión__apetito__sentimientos__No sé
13. estreñimiento__bloqueado__suelto__No sé
14. embarazo__parto__niñez__No sé
15. incesto__familia__vecinos__No sé
16. pastilla__tableta__galleta__No sé
17. testículo__óvulo__esperma__No sé
18. rectal__regadera__inodoro__No sé
19. ojo__oír__ver__No sé
20. irritación__rígido__adolorido__No sé
21. abnormal__diferente__similar__No sé
22. estrés__preocupación__feliz__No sé
23. aborto espontáneo__pérdida__matrimonio__No sé
24. ictericia__amarillo__blanco__No sé
25. papanicolaou__prueba__vacuna__No sé
26. impétigo__pelo__piel__No sé
27. indicado__instrucción__decisión__No sé
28. ataque__herida__sano__No sé
29. menopausia__señoras__niñas__No sé
30. apéndice__rascar__dolor__No sé
31. comportamiento__pensamiento__conducta__No sé
32. nutrición__saludable__gaseosa__No sé
33. diabetes__azúcar__sal__No sé
34. sífilis__anticonceptivo__condón__No sé
35. inflamatorio__hinchazón__sudor__No sé
36. hemorroides__venas__corazón__No sé
37. herpes__aire__sexo__No sé
38. alérgico__resistencia__reacción__No sé
39. riñón__orina__fiebre__No sé
40. calorías__alimentos__vitaminas__No sé
41. medicamento__instrumento__tratamiento__No sé
42. anemia__sangre__nervio__No sé
43. intestinos__digestión__sudor__No sé
44. potasio__mineral__proteína__No sé
45. colitis__intestino__vejiga__No sé
36. obesidad__peso__altura__No sé
47. hepatitis__pulmón__hígado__No sé
48. vesícula biliar__arteria__órgano__No sé
49. convulsiones__mareado__tranquilo__No sé
50. artritis__estómago__articulación__No sé

Instructions for Administering SAHLSA-50

Administration of the test could be facilitated by using laminated 4" x 5" flash cards, with each card containing a medical term printed in boldface on the top and the two association words—i.e., the key and the distracter—at the bottom.

Directions to the Interviewer:

  1. Before the test, the interviewer should say to the examinee: "Le voy a mostrar tarjetas con 3 palabras en ellas. Primero, me gustaría que usted lea la palabra arriba en voz alta. Entonces, yo leeré las dos palabras debajo a usted y me gustaría que usted me dijera cuál de las dos palabras es más similar a la palabra arriba. Si usted no sabe la respuesta, por favor diga, 'No sé'. No adivine."
  2. Show the examinee the first card.
  3. The interviewer should say to the examinee: "Ahora, por favor, lea la palabra arriba en voz alta."
  4. The interviewer should have a clipboard with a score sheet to record the examinee's answers. The clipboard should be held such that the examinee cannot see or be distracted by the scoring procedure.
  5. The interviewer will then read the key and distracter (the two words at the bottom of the card) and then say: "Cuál de las dos palabras es más similar a la palabra arriba? Si usted no sabe la respuesta, por favor diga, 'No sé'.
  6. The interviewer may repeat the instructions so that the examinee feels comfortable with the procedure.
  7. Continue the test with the rest of the cards.
  8. A correct answer for each test item is determined by both correct pronunciation and accurate association. Each correct answer gets one point. Once the test is completed, the interviewer should tally the total points to generate the SAHLSA-50 score.
  9. A score between 0 and 37 suggests the examinee has inadequate health literacy.

FAQs

How do I measure health literacy? ›

Individual health literacy

They test for reading ability and understanding, word recognition and numeracy. These tests can help health professionals understand the patient's health literacy level. It is important to use individual health literacy tests that are content and context specific.

What tool is helpful for determining a patient's health literacy? ›

The SAHLSA was based on the Rapid Estimates of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), known as the most easily administered tool for assessing health literacy in English.

What tools can nurses use to address health literacy? ›

Nurses, nurse managers, and general health care providers can use the following strategies for improving health literacy among patient populations:
  • Creating a welcoming environment. ...
  • Making use of printed information. ...
  • Using basic language. ...
  • Speaking at a measured pace. ...
  • Asking questions. ...
  • Encouraging questions.

What is a health literacy tool? ›

The Health Literacy Tool Shed is an online database of measures of individual's health literacy. The site contains information about measures, including their psychometric properties, based on a review of the peer-reviewed literature.

What are the 3 common measurement systems used in healthcare? ›

Three systems of measurement are used for medication dosage administration: the metric system, the apothecaries' system, and the household system. To be able to accurately administer medication, you must understand all three of these systems.

What are the 3 types of health literacy? ›

The different types of health literacy—functional, interactive and critical health literacy—are considered.

What are the tools used in the health assessment? ›

Physical Assessment Tools, Instruments and Supplies

The physical assessment includes an audioscope, examination light, laryngeal mirror, nasal speculum, otoscope, ophthalmoscope, penlight, percussion hammer, sphygmomanometer, stethoscope, thermometer, and tuning fork.

What are the 4 components of health literacy? ›

Arguably, the Institute of Medicine (IoM) presented one of the most influential models of health literacy. The IoM model contains four underlying constructs: cultural and conceptual knowledge, print health literacy (writing and reading skills), oral health literacy (listening and speaking), and numeracy.

What are the 4 key components of having health literacy? ›

Within the definition of health literacy as individual capacities, the Institute of Medicine [8] consider cultural and conceptual knowledge, listening, speaking, arithmetical, writing, and reading skills as the main components of health literacy.

What tools are used to measure and monitor performance in healthcare? ›

AHRQ Quality Indicators (AHRQ QIs) are standardized, evidence-based measures of healthcare quality that can be used to measure and track clinical performance and outcomes.

What assessment tools do nurses use? ›

Abbreviated mental test (or AMT or mini-mental or MMSE) is used to rapidly to assess elderly patients for the possibility of dementia, delirium, confusion and other cognitive impairment. ABCDE is a comprehensive and systematic assessment of a patients physiology; airway, breathing, circulation, disability and exposure.

What are the tools used for measuring patient centered care? ›

What Tools Are Used To Measure Patient-centered Care? Six instruments (CPCI, PCAS, GPAS, PPQ, PCAT–A, and CARE) can measure the whole person dimension. All dimensions of the conceptual framework are evaluated by the CPCI, PCAS, GPAS, PCAT–A, and CARE, at least in part.

What are examples of literacy tools? ›

The authors demonstrate how literacy tools such as narratives, question-asking, spoken-word poetry, drama, writing, digital communication, images, and video encourage critical inquiry in the 5-12 classroom.

What is epic tool in healthcare? ›

Give patients the tools to be healthier with MyChart, Epic's patient portal. Patients have personal and family health information at their fingertips with MyChart. They can message their doctors, attend e-visits, complete questionnaires, schedule appointments, and be more involved in managing their health.

What is NHS health literacy? ›

'Health literacy refers to the personal characteristics and social resources needed for individuals and communities to access, understand, appraise and use information and services to make decisions about health.

What are the 2 widely used measuring systems? ›

The two systems used for specifying units of measure are the English and metric systems. Units in the English system are historical units of measurement used in medieval England which evolved from the Anglo-Saxon and Roman systems.

What is the most preferred system of measurement in healthcare? ›

The metric system is the primary measurement system, used in the medical field. Healthcare professionals must have the ability to convert units of measurement, within and between the metric system and the US customary system.

What are quality measurement tools in healthcare? ›

Quality measures are tools that help us measure or quantify healthcare processes, outcomes, patient perceptions, and organizational structure and/or systems that are associated with the ability to provide high-quality health care and/or that relate to one or more quality goals for health care.

What is health literacy NMC? ›

Health literacy is the ability to make informed health decisions in everyday life.

How many levels of health literacy are there? ›

Nutbeam's (2000) three levels of health literacy: functional, interactive and critical are discussed.

What are the two aspects of health literacy? ›

The results of this study show that two facets of health literacy—health-related self-perception (health awareness) and a proactive approach to health (health value)—are associated with teachers' use of HPMs.

What are the 5 assessment tools? ›

Assessment Tools: Introduction
  • Rubrics. For assessing qualitative student work such as essays, projects, reports, or presentations, we recommend the use of rubrics. ...
  • Curriculum Mapping. ...
  • Focus Groups. ...
  • Portfolios. ...
  • Structured Interviews. ...
  • Surveys.

What are the 5 diagnostic tools? ›

Five diagnostic tools you need to know about
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) What is it? An MRI is similar to an X-ray, but it is much more detailed. ...
  • Computer axial tomography (CT or CAT) scan. What is it? ...
  • Biopsy. What is it? ...
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan. What is it? ...
  • Ultrasound. What is it?
1 Apr 2019

What is the most commonly used assessment tool? ›

Employment interviews. The employment interview is probably the most commonly used assessment tool.

What are the Daily 5 literacy components? ›

The Daily 5 Literacy Framework: A Guide to Best Practices
  • Read to Self.
  • Work on Writing.
  • Read to Someone.
  • Listen to Reading.
  • Word Work.
22 Dec 2015

What are the 6 components of literacy? ›

Research has shown that there are six key components that contribute to successful beginning reading. Because of the importance of these components, they have become known as the 'Big Six': oral language, phonological awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension.

What are the 5 main components of health? ›

There are five main aspects of personal health: physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and intellectual. In order to be considered "well," it is imperative for none of these areas to be neglected.

What are the 7 components of building health skills? ›

The 7 Health Skills
  • Analyzing Influences.
  • Accessing Resources.
  • Interpersonal Communication.
  • Decision Making.
  • Goal Setting.
  • Practicing Health-Enhancing Behaviors.
  • Advocacy.
22 Mar 2018

What are the four major determinants of health according to Lalonde? ›

To the best of our knowledge, McKeown was the first to use the term “determinants of health.”4 The Lalonde report identified 4 major components of the health field concept: human biology, health care systems, environment, and lifestyle.

What are the 6 components of a health information system? ›

Part 2: Components and Standards of a Health Information System – describes the components and standards of a health information system, as shown in the left-hand column of Fig. 1. These are health information system resources, indicators, data sources, data management, information products, and dissemination and use.

What are four 4 performance tools? ›

This document outlines four performance management tools: Balanced Scorecard, Baldrige, Lean and Studer. These tools have been identified by the National Rural Health Resource Center as effective methods for managing performance improvement with small rural hospitals.

What are the three performance measuring tools? ›

Graphic rating scales, management by objectives and forced ranking are three methods used to measure employee performance.

What are the four types of assessment tools? ›

A Guide to Types of Assessment: Diagnostic, Formative, Interim, and Summative.

What is the most used assessment tool in clinical practice? ›

Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale

Many classification schemes have been developed; however, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (Table 103-1), introduced by Teasdale and Jennett in 1974, is the most widely used.

What are the 4 techniques in health assessment? ›

Observation is the most important physical assessment technique for practitioners to master. Other assessment techniques include auscultation, palpation, bimanual inspection of the kidneys, percussion, transillumination, and head-to-toe examination.

What are the 4 C's of patient-centered care? ›

Background: The four primary care (PC) core functions (the '4Cs', ie, first contact, comprehensiveness, coordination and continuity) are essential for good quality primary healthcare and their achievement leads to lower costs, less inequality and better population health.

What type of measurement system is used in healthcare and why? ›

As Modern Healthcare recently reported, the AAP, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices have long recommended that health care facilities use only the metric system in order to avoid confusion about patient weights and medication dosages.

What tool measures accuracy? ›

Micrometers: In the hands of a skilled operator, the precision micrometer is the most accurate hand-held tool available.

What are the 5 key health indicators? ›

Health Indicators
  • Crude death rate.
  • Life expectancy.
  • Infant mortality rate.
  • Maternal mortality rate.
  • Crude birth rate.

What is the best way to measure health? ›

Best Ways to Measure Overall Health
  1. Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate. Keeping your heart healthy is important for everyone, but it is the number one killer of women in the United States. ...
  2. Biological Age. This is not your actual age. ...
  3. Happiness/Stress Levels. Enjoying life is important to living a healthy one.

What are the 5 core public health knowledge areas? ›

What are the 5 Core Competencies of Public Health?
  • Biostatistics. ...
  • Environmental Health Sciences. ...
  • Epidemiology. ...
  • Health Policy and Management. ...
  • Social and Behavioral Sciences. ...
  • Evidence-based approaches to public health. ...
  • Public health and health care systems. ...
  • Planning and management to promote health.
14 Sept 2020

What are the 12 leading health indicators? ›

Leading Health Indicators
  • Access to Health Services.
  • Clinical Preventive Services.
  • Environmental Quality.
  • Maternal Infant and Child Health.
  • Mental Health.
  • Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity.
  • Oral Health.
  • Reproductive and Sexual Health.

What are the 8 wellbeing indicators? ›

To ensure everyone has a common understanding of what wellbeing means, the Scottish Government has described wellbeing in terms of eight indicators, which are Safe, Healthy, Achieving, Nurtured, Active, Respected, Responsible and Included. These are sometimes abbreviated to the acronym known as SHANARRI.

What are 4 measures of health status? ›

For example, physical functioning, mental and emotional well-being, social functioning, general health perceptions, pain, energy, and vitality have all been used to assess health status.

What are the indicators used to measure the health status? ›

indicators (disease specific mortality, morbidity and disability), determinants of health (biological risk factors and health behaviours) and health systems (surgical procedures, medication use, use of health services).

What is the most important health metric? ›

For many people, living not only a long and happy life but also a healthy one is, unfortunately, more wishful thinking than a reality.

What are two ways health measures? ›

Health status can be measured using pathological and clinical measures and is usually observed by clinicians or measured using instruments. Types of disease measurement include: Signs - blood pressure, temperature, X-ray, tumour size.

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