Until May 19, 1972, the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases; until June 23, 1981, the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases; and until April 8, 1986, the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
- Important Events
- Legislative Chronology
The mission of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) is to conduct and support medical research and research training and to disseminate science-based information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases, nutritional disorders, and obesity; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases, to improve people’s health and quality of life.
The NIDDK supports a wide range of medical research through grants to universities and other medical research institutions across the country. The Institute also supports government scientists who conduct basic, translational, and clinical research across a broad spectrum of research topics and serious, chronic diseases and conditions related to the Institute's mission. In addition, the NIDDK supports research training for students and scientists at various stages of their careers and a range of education and outreach programs to bring science-based information to patients and their families, health care professionals, and the public.
External research funded by the NIDDK is organized into three scientific program divisions
- Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases
- Digestive Diseases and Nutrition
- Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases
The NIDDK’s overarching principles in advancing research include
- maintaining a vigorous, investigator-initiated research portfolio that supports cross-cutting science that can be broadly applied to many disease-specific research areas
- supporting pivotal clinical studies and trials, with a focus on substantial participation of groups at highest risk
- promoting a steady and diverse pool of talented new investigators
- fostering exceptional research training and mentoring opportunities
- ensuring that science-based health information reaches patients, their families, health care providers, and the publicthrough outreach and communications
August 15, 1950—President Harry S. Truman signed the Omnibus Medical Research Act into law, establishing the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (NIAMD) in the U.S. Public Health Service. The new Institute incorporated the laboratories of the Experimental Biology and Medicine Institute and expanded to include clinical investigation in rheumatic diseases, diabetes, and a number of metabolic, endocrine, and gastrointestinal diseases.
November 15, 1950—The National Advisory Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases Council held its first meeting and recommended approval of NIAMD's first grants.
1959—Dr. Arthur Kornberg, former chief of the Institute's enzyme and metabolism section, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with another scientist for synthesizing nucleic acid.
1961—Laboratory-equipped mobile trailer units started an epidemiological study of arthritis with the Blackfeet Nation American Indians in Montana, leading to arthritis and diabetes work with the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona and establishment of the NIDDK Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, where work on type 2 diabetes and obesity continues today.
October 16, 1968—Dr. Marshall W. Nirenberg of the National Heart Institute shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with two other scientists. Dr. Nirenberg reported his celebrated partial cracking of the genetic code while an NIAMD scientist.
November 1970—The Institute celebrated its 20th anniversary.
May 19, 1972—The Institute's name was changed to the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (NIAMDD).
October 1972— Dr. Christian B. Anfinsen, chief of the Institute's Laboratory of Chemical Biology, shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with two other American scientists for demonstrating one of the most important simplifying concepts of molecular biology: that the three-dimensional conformation of a native protein is determined by the chemistry of its amino acid sequence. A significant part of the research cited by the award was performed while Anfinsen was with the NIH.
September 1973—The creation of the first Diabetes-Endocrinology Research Centers marked the beginning of the Institute’s Diabetes Centers Program.
November 1975—After nine months of investigation into the epidemiology and nature of diabetes mellitus and public hearings throughout the United States, the National Commission on Diabetes delivered its report, theLong-Range Plan to Combat Diabetes, to Congress. Recommendations included expanding and coordinating diabetes and related research programs; creating a diabetes research and training centers program; accelerating diabetes health care, education, and control programs; and establishing a National Diabetes Advisory Board.
April 1976—The National Commission on Arthritis and Related Musculoskeletal Diseases issuedThe Arthritis Plan. This report to Congress called for increased arthritis research and training programs, multipurpose arthritis centers, epidemiologic studies, and data systems in arthritis, a National Arthritis Information Service, and a National Arthritis Advisory Board.
October 1976—Dr. Baruch S. Blumberg shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with another scientist for their research on infectious diseases. Dr. Blumberg discovered the hepatitis B virus protein, the "Australia antigen," in 1963 while at the Institute. This advance has proven to be a scientific and clinical landmark in detecting and controlling viral hepatitis and led to the development of preventive measures against hepatitis and liver cancer.
April 19, 1977—The NIH director established a trans-NIH program for diabetes, with the NIAMDD taking lead responsibility.
September 1977—More than$5 million in grants was awarded to five institutions to establish Diabetes Research and Training Centers.
October 1977—In response to the recommendation of the National Commission on Diabetes, the National Diabetes Data Group was established within the Institute to collect, analyze, and disseminate diabetes data to scientific and public health policy and planning associations.
December 1977—Institute grantees Drs. Roger C.L. Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with a third scientist. Guillemin's and Schally's prizes were for discoveries related to the brain's production of peptide hormones.
1978—In response to congressional language, the NIDDK created the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse to increase knowledge and understanding about diabetes among people with these conditions and their families, health professionals, and the public.
January 1979—The National Commission on Digestive Diseases issued the report, TheNational Long-Range Plan to Combat Digestive Diseases. Recommendations to Congress included establishing a National Digestive Diseases advisory board and information clearinghouse and emphasizing digestive diseases educational programs more in medical schools.
June 1980—In response to congressional language, the NIDDK created the National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse to increase knowledge and understanding about digestive diseases among people with these conditions and their families, health professionals, and the public.
September 1980—Dr. Joseph E. Rall, director of NIAMDD intramural research, became the first person at the NIH to be named to the distinguished executive rank in the Senior Executive Service. President Jimmy Carter presented the award in ceremonies at the White House on September 9.
October 15, 1980—NIAMDD celebrated its 30th anniversary.
June 23, 1981—The Institute was renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIADDK).
April 1982—U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Richard S. Schweiker elevated the NIADDK's programs to division status, creating five extramural divisions and the Division of Intramural Research.
November 1982—Dr. Elizabeth Neufeld, chief of the NIADDK’s genetics and biochemistry branch, received the Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award. She was cited, along with Dr. Roscoe O. Brady of the then-named National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, for their contributions to the understanding and diagnosis of inherited diseases called mucopolysaccharide storage disorders.
1982—NIDDK support contributed to the development of an effective vaccine against the virus that causes acute hepatitis B.
1983—The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial(DCCT) begins, demonstrating that keeping blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible slows the onset and progression of the eye, kidney, and nerve damage cause by diabetes.
November 1984—Six institutions were funded to establish the Silvio O. Conte Digestive Diseases Research Core Centers. The research centers investigate the underlying causes, diagnoses, treatments, and prevention of digestive diseases.
April 8, 1986—The Institute's Division of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases became the core of the new National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. The NIADDK was renamed the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).
June 3, 1986—The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Advisory Board was established to formulate the long-range plan to combat kidney and urologic diseases.
August 1, 1987—Six institutions were funded to establish the George M. O'Brien Kidney and Urology Research Centers.
December 1987—In response to congressional language on the fiscal year (FY) 1988 appropriation for the NIDDK, the Institute established a program of cystic fibrosis research centers.
1987—In response to congressional language, the NIDDK created the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse to increase knowledge and understanding about diseases of the kidneys and urologic system among people with these conditions and their families, health care professionals, and the public.
March 1990—The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Advisory Board issued its report, Long-Range Plan: Window on the 21st Century.
September 16, 1990—The NIDDK celebrated its 40th anniversary.
June 1991—The NIDDK Advisory Council established the National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity to synthesize current science on preventing and treating obesity and to develop statements about topics of clinical importance based on critical analyses of the scientific literature.
September 30, 1992—Three Obesity/Nutrition Research Centers were established, along with an extramural animal models core to breed genetically obese rats for obesity and diabetes research.
October 12, 1992— Institute grantees Drs. Edwin G. Krebs and Edmond H. Fischer were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on reversible protein phosphorylation. At the time of the award, the scientists had been receiving continuous NIDDK grant support since 1951 and 1956, respectively.
October 30, 1992—In response to congressional language, the NIDDK initiated a program to establish gene therapy research centers with emphasis on cystic fibrosis.
September 1993—The NIDDK established the Cooperative Centers of Excellence in Hematology to generate collaborative investigative resources for teams of researchers from a wide range of disciplines to study nonmalignant hematology.
November 1, 1993—The functions of the NIH Division of Nutrition Research Coordination, including those of the NIH Nutrition Coordinating Committee, were transferred to the NIDDK.
June 1994—In response to congressional language, NIDDK establishedthe Weight-control Information Network (WIN), an information service about obesity, weight management and nutrition.
October 10, 1994—Drs. Martin Rodbell and Alfred G. Gilman received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering G-proteins, a key component in the signaling system that regulates cellular activity. Dr. Rodbell discovered the signal transmission function of GTP while a researcher at the then-named NIAMD.
June 22, 1997—Led by the NIDDK, the NIH and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced the creation of the National Diabetes Education Program to promote the findings of the multi-center Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT).
1998—FDA approves first effective therapy, hydroxyurea, forsickle cell diseaseresulting from current NIDDK Director Dr. Griffin P. Rodgers’ research.
1999—NIDDK-supported research led to the first FDA-approved continuous glucose monitor(CGM), enabling people to track glucose levels in real-time without the need for finger pricks.
1999—The NIDDK created the Polycystic Kidney Disease Research Resource Consortium with a vision to accelerate discovery in polycystic kidney disease through innovation and resource sharing.
July 18, 2000—The NIDDK created the National Kidney Disease Education Program to raise awareness of kidney disease and its risk factors and make educational resources available to consumers and health care providers.
June 2000—The NIDDK created the Office of Minority Health Research Coordination to develop NIDDK’s Minority Health Strategic Plan to reduce minority health disparities.
November 16, 2000—The NIDDK celebrated its 50th anniversary.
2001—The Look AHEADstudy begins. The study found the benefits of lifestyle intervention for people with longstanding type 2 diabetes include decreasing sleep apnea, reducing the need for diabetes medications, helping to maintain physical mobility, and improving quality of life.
June 2002—NIDDK created the Summer Internship Program, now called the Diversity Summer Research Training Program (DSRTP), to increase the number of students from backgrounds underrepresented in biomedical research to build a research pipeline in NIDDK mission areas.
November 2002—NIDDK created the Network of Minority Health Research Investigators to help increase the number of minority health researchers who compete for NIH research support in the fields of interest to NIDDK.
2002—The NIDDK’s multi-site study, theDiabetes Prevention Program(DPP) demonstrated that moderate weight loss through dietary changes and physical activity, or the drug metformin, can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in those at high risk for the disease.
October 8, 2003—NIDDK grantee Dr. Peter Agre shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with another scientist for studies of channels in cell membranes. Agre discovered aquaporins, proteins that move water molecules through the cell membrane.
October 4, 2004—Dr. Richard Axel, once an intramural research fellow under NIDDK’s Dr. Gary Felsenfeld, shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with another scientist for discovering a large family of receptors selectively expressed in cells that detect specific odors.
October 6, 2004—Longtime NIDDK grantees Drs. Irwin A. Rose and Avram Hershko shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with another scientist for discovering ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation inside the cell.
October 2007—Institute grantee Dr. Oliver Smithies shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with two other scientists for discovering principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells.
2008—Research from NIDDK scientists and grantees led to thegroundbreaking discoverythat variants in a gene, called APOL1, are associated with a higher risk of kidney disease and that these variants are found almost exclusively in people of African descent.
September 2010—NIDDK grantee Dr. Jeffrey Friedman and former grantee Dr. Douglas Coleman won the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award for discovering the hormone leptin, which plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure.
2010—The NIDDK celebrated its 60th anniversary.
October 3, 2011—NIDDK grantee Dr. Bruce Beutler shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with NIH grantee Dr. Jules Hoffman for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity. NIH grantee Dr. Ralph Steinman also shared the award posthumously for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity.
December 2011—The journalSciencenamed an HIV-prevention research study led by NIDDK grantee Dr. Myron Cohen the 2011 Breakthrough of the Year. The study found that people infected with HIV reduced the risk of transmitting the virus to their sexual partners by taking oral antiretroviral medicines when their immune systems were relatively healthy.
April 29, 2012—The Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study results appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine, marking the first major comparative effectiveness trial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in young people. The NIDDK-funded study found that combined therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone was superior to metformin alone.
September 21, 2012—Dr. Thomas E. Starzl, a longtime NIDDK grantee, received the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, shared with another scientist for his work developing liver transplantation, an intervention that has restored normal life to thousands of people with end-stage liver disease.
October 2012—Dr. Robert J. Lefkowitz, who trained at NIDDK as a clinical associate in the Clinical Endocrinology Branch, won theNobel Prize in Chemistryfor studies of protein receptors that let body cells sense and respond to outside signals.
October 2013—NIDDK grantee Dr. James Rothman shared theNobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with fellow NIH grantees Drs. Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells.
August 1, 2015—NIDDK established the Office of Nutrition Research, replacing the NIH Division of Nutrition Research Coordination, to assist in leading a trans-NIH group to strategically plan new initiatives for NIH nutrition research.
2015—TheChronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort(CRIC) Study published results finding that elevated blood levels of either of two proteins is associated with up to an eleven-fold increased risk of heart failure among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
September 2016—NIDDK grantee Dr. Gregg L. Semenza shared the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award with NIH grantee Dr. William G. Kaelin Jr. and another scientist for their discovery of the pathway by which cells from humans and most animals sense and adapt to changes in oxygen availability—a process essential for survival.
March 2018—The NIDDK opened the Office of Clinical Research Support (OCRS), a virtual office to oversee and coordinate the development of policies and procedures of NIDDK-funded clinical studies.
September 2018—Dr. Adriaan “Ad” Bax, a section chief in NIDDK’s Laboratory of Chemical Physics, received the Robert A. Welch Award in Chemistry for contributions to transforming NMR spectroscopy for the study of the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules.
October 7, 2019—NIDDK grantee Dr. Gregg L. Semenza shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with NIH grantee Dr. William G. Kaelin Jr. and another scientist for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.
January 2020—NIDDK streamlined and integrated its information clearinghouses and education programs under the NIDDK umbrella.
April 2020—NIDDK research shows the importance of masks in COVID-19 transmission. NIDDK Intramural researchers revealed that talking generates as much or more droplets than coughing or sneezing, and that wearing a simple face covering to stop most speech particles potentially infected by SARS-CoV-2 at their source.
May 2020—Led by chair of the Nutrition Research Task Force, Dr. Griffin P. Rodgers, and the support of NIDDK’s Office of Nutrition Research, the first NIH-wide strategic plan for nutrition research was released, emphasizing cross-cutting, innovative opportunities in precision nutrition.
2020—The NIDDK celebrated its 70th anniversary.
January 2021—The Office of Nutrition Research is transferred to the NIH Office of the Director, Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives to implement the 2020-2030 Strategic Plan for NIH Nutrition Research.
December 11, 1947—The Experimental Biology and Medicine Institute was established under Section 202 of Public Law (P.L.) 78-410.
August 15, 1950—The Omnibus Medical Research Act (P.L. 81-692) established the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (NIAMD) to "... conduct researches relating to the cause, prevention, and methods of diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and rheumatism and other metabolic diseases, to assist and foster such researches and other activities by public and private agencies, and promote the coordination of all such researches, and to provide training in matters relating to such disease..." Section 431 also authorized the U.S. Surgeon General to establish a national advisory council.
May 19, 1972—P.L. 92-305 re-emphasized digestive diseases research by changing the name of the Institute to the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (NIAMDD) and by designating a digestive diseases committee within the Institute's National Advisory Council.
July 23, 1974—The National Diabetes Mellitus Research and Education Act (P.L. 93-354) was signed into law. The National Commission on Diabetes, authorized by this act, was chartered on September 17, 1974. The act authorized diabetes research and training centers, and an intergovernmental diabetes coordinating committee that included representatives from the NIAMDD and six other NIH Institutes.
January 1975—The National Arthritis Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-640) was signed into law to further research, education, and training in the field of connective tissue diseases. The act authorized the creation of a national commission, centers for research and training in arthritis and rheumatic diseases, a data bank, and an overall plan to investigate the epidemiology, etiology, control, and prevention of these disorders.
October 1976—The Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive Diseases Amendments of 1976 (P.L. 94-562) established the National Diabetes Advisory Board, charged with advising Congress and the Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) Secretary on implementing theLong-Range Plan to Combat Diabetesdeveloped by the National Commission on Diabetes. The law also established the National Commission on Digestive Diseases to investigate the incidence, duration, mortality rates, and social and economic impact of digestive diseases.
December 1980—Title II of the Health Programs Extension Act of 1980, P.L. 96-538, changed the Institute's name to the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The Act also established the National Digestive Diseases Advisory Board. The law authorized the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, the Diabetes Data Group, and the National Digestive Diseases Information and Education Clearinghouse. In addition, it reauthorized advisory boards for arthritis and diabetes research.
November 20, 1985—The Health Research Extension Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-158) changed the Institute’s name to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The act also established the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Advisory Board. The law gave parallel special authorities to all Institute operating divisions, including authorization of the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse; National Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases Coordinating Committee; National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Data System; National Digestive Diseases Data System; Kidney and Urologic Diseases Research Centers; and Digestive Diseases Research Centers.
June 10, 1993—The NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (P.L. 103-43) established the NIDDK as the lead Institute in nutritional disorders and obesity, including the formation of a research and training centers program on nutritional disorders and obesity. The act also provided for the directors of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Dental Research, and the NIDDK to expand and intensify research and related programs concerning osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and related bone disorders.
July 25, 1997—A House report accompanying H.R. 2264 and Senate report with S. 1061, FY 1998 appropriations bills for Labor/HHS/Education, urged NIH and NIDDK to establish a diabetes research working group to develop a comprehensive plan for NIH-funded diabetes research that would recommend future initiatives and directions. Dr. C. Ronald Kahn, diabetes research working group chairman, presented "Conquering Diabetes, A Strategic Plan for the 21st Century" to Congress on March 23, 1999.
August 5, 1997—The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-33), as immediately amended by the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-34), established aSpecial Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research(now Section 330B of the Public Health Service Act). This legislation provided $30 million per year for FY 1998 through FY 2002. (The program has been extended and has had funding increased in subsequent years.) This funding program augments regularly appropriated funds HHS receives for diabetes research through the Labor-HHS-Education appropriations subcommittees. The NIDDK, through authority granted by the HHS Secretary, leads in the planning, administration, and evaluation of these funds. In parallel with theSpecial Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research, P.L. 105-33 also established theSpecial Diabetes Program for Indians, which is administered by the Indian Health Service.
October 17, 2000—Title IV, Section 402 of the Children’s Health Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-310) entitled "Reducing the Burden of Diabetes Among Children and Youth" specified that the NIH conduct long-term epidemiology studies, support regional clinical research centers, and provide a national prevention effort relative to type 1 diabetes.
December 21, 2000—The FY 2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 106-554) increased funding for the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research to $100 million per year for FY 2001 and FY 2002 and extended the program at a level of $100 million for FY 2003.
December 17, 2002—The Public Health Service Act amendment relating to diabetes research (P.L. 107-360) extended and augmented the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million per year for type 1 diabetes research from FY 2004 through FY 2008.
December 8, 2003—Title VII, Subtitle D, Section 733 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-173) authorized the NIDDK to conduct a pancreatic islet transplantation clinical trial that includes Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare would cover routine costs, transplantation, and appropriate related items and services for Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the trial.
October 25, 2004—The Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-362) amended the Public Health Service Act to increase the supply of pancreatic islet cells for research and provide better coordination of federal efforts and information on islet cell transplantation. A provision of this law specified that the annual reports prepared by the NIDDK-led Diabetes Mellitus Interagency Coordinating Committee include an assessment of the federal activities and programs related to pancreatic islet transplantation.
September 2004—The reports accompanying the FY 2005 Senate and House Labor, HHS, and Education appropriations bills (Senate Report 108-345 and House Report 108-636) called on the NIH and HHS to establish a national commission on digestive diseases to develop a long-range research plan. The NIH director subsequently established the National Commission on Digestive Diseases under NIDDK leadership in August 2005.
December 29, 2007—The Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-173) extended funding for the SpecialStatutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million for type 1 diabetes research in FY 2009.
July 15, 2008—The Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-275) extended funding for theSpecial Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million per year for type 1 diabetes research in FY 2010 and FY 2011.
February 17, 2009—The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 (P.L. 111-5) provided the NIH with a two-year infusion of funding. The NIDDK developed a plan to use its portion of the ARRA funds to meet the stimulus goals set forth in the Recovery Act. This funding supported a range of biomedical research efforts across the Institute's research mission.
June 15, 2010—H. Res. 1444, a bipartisan resolution, was introducedrecognizing the 60th anniversary of the NIDDK.
December 15, 2010—The Medicare and Medicaid Extenders Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-309) extended funding for theSpecial Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million per year for type 1 diabetes research in FY 2012 and FY 2013.
January 2, 2013—The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-240) extended funding for the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million for type 1 diabetes research in FY 2014.
April 1, 2014—The Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (P.L. 113-93) extended the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million for type 1 diabetes research in FY 2015.
April 16, 2015—The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-10) extended the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million per year for type 1 diabetes research in FY 2016 and FY 2017.
February 9, 2018—The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-123) extended the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million per year for type 1 diabetes research in FY 2018 and FY 2019.
March 27, 2020—The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act (P.L. 116-136) extended the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million for type 1 diabetes research in FY 2020.
December 27, 2020—The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (P.L. 116-260) extended the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research. The law provided $150 million per year for type 1 diabetes research in FY 2021 through FY 2023.
Griffin P. Rodgers, M.D., M.A.C.P.
Dr. Griffin P. Rodgers was named director of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)—one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)—on April 1, 2007. He had served as NIDDK’s acting director since March 2006 and had been the Institute’s deputy director since January 2001. As the director of NIDDK, Dr. Rodgers provides scientific leadership and manages a staff of more than 630 employees and a budget of nearly $2.25 billion.
Dr. Rodgers received his undergraduate, graduate, and medical degrees from Brown University in Providence, R.I. He completed his residency and chief residency in internal medicine at Barnes Hospital and the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. His fellowship training in hematology was in a joint program of the NIH with George Washington University and the Washington Veterans Administration Medical Center. In addition to his medical and research training, he earned an MBA, with a focus on the business of medicine/science, from Johns Hopkins University in 2005.
As a research investigator, Dr. Rodgers is widely recognized for his contributions to the development of the first effective—and now FDA approved—therapy for sickle cell anemia. He was a principal investigator in clinical trials to develop therapy for patients with sickle cell disease and also performed basic research that focused on understanding the molecular basis of how certain drugs induce gamma-globin gene expression. More recently, he and his collaborators have reported on a modified blood stem-cell transplant regimen that is highly effective in reversing sickle cell disease in adults and is associated with relatively low toxicity. He has been honored for his research with numerous awards including the 1998 Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation Award, the 2000 Arthur S. Flemming Award, the Legacy of Leadership Award in 2002, and a Mastership from the American College of Physicians in 2005. In 2018 Dr. Rodgers was elected as a fellow to the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Royal College of Physicians (London).
Dr. Rodgers has been an invited professor at medical schools and hospitals both nationally and internationally. He has been honored with many named lectureships at American medical centers and has published more than 250 original research articles, reviews, and book chapters; has edited four books and monographs; and holds three patents.
Dr. Rodgers is a member of the American Society of Hematology, the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the National Academy of Medicine, among others. He served as Governor to the American College of Physicians and as Chair of the Hematology Subspecialty Board and a member of the American Board of Internal Medicine Board of Directors.
Dr. Rodgers serves as a chair, co-chair, and member of numerous high-level trans-NIH and HHS scientific and administrative committees. He is chair of the NIH Nutrition Research Task Force, co-chair of the NIH Obesity Research Task Force, and serves on the Executive Committee leading the Accelerating Medicines Partnership. He also co-leads the Illuminating the Druggable Genome program of the NIH Common Fund, and is a member of the NIH Steering Committee, NIH-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Joint Leadership Council, and NIH-Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Leadership Council, among others.
|Name||In Office from||To|
|William Henry Sebrell, Jr.||August 15, 1950||October 1, 1950|
|Russell M. Wilder||March 6, 1951||June 30, 1953|
|Floyd S. Daft||October 1, 1953||May 3, 1962|
|G. Donald Whedon||November 23, 1962||September 30, 1981|
|Lester B. Salans||June 17, 1982||June 30, 1984|
|Mortimer B. Lipsett||January 7, 1985||September 4, 1986|
|Phillip Gorden||September 5, 1986||November 14, 1999|
|Allen M. Spiegel||November 15, 1999||March 3, 2006|
|Griffin P. Rodgers||April 1, 2007||Present|
Division of Intramural Research (DIR)
The NIDDK’s intramural research program conducts biomedical research and training at its laboratories and clinical facilities in Bethesda, Maryland, and Phoenix, Arizona, related to diabetes, endocrine and metabolic diseases—including liver disease and nutrition—obesity, and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases.The research conducted in DIR spans the breadth of modern biomedical investigation, from basic science to clinical studies.
Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases (DEM)
The Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases provides research funding and support for basic and clinical research in the areas of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders, including cystic fibrosis; endocrinology and endocrine disorders; obesity, neuroendocrinology, and energy balance; and development, metabolism, and basic biology of liver, fat, and endocrine tissues. DEM also provides funding for the training and career development of individuals committed to academic and clinical research careers in these areas.
Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition (DDN)
The Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition supports research related to digestive diseases, including the alimentary tract, liver and pancreas, nutrition and obesity. The programs include basic, translational and clinical research, research training, and career development. DDN also promotes public awareness and education about digestive diseases and related conditions.
Division of Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases (KUH)
The Division of Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases provides research funding and support for basic, translational, and clinical research studies of the kidney, urinary tract, and disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs. The division also provides funding for training and career development of people committed to academic and clinical research in these areas.
Division of Extramural Activities (DEA)
The Division of Extramural Activities provides leadership, oversight, tools, and guidance to manage NIDDK's extramural operations, including efforts related to the scientific peer review process for assessing grant applications and the release and management of grants. DEA also coordinates the NIDDK's committee management activities andAdvisory Councilmeetings, and performs and coordinates programmatic analyses and evaluation activities.
NIDDK Office of the Director
The NIDDK Office of the Director provides scientific and administrative leadership for the Institute, including policy guidance, strategic program development and evaluation, and overall operational and administrative coordination.
The Office of the Director also manages the following research support programs:
- Office of Clinical Research Support
- Biostatistics Program
- Regulatory Support Program
- NIDDK Central Repository
Executive Office (EO)
The NIDDK Executive Office is the focal point for the Institute’s administrative infrastructure and functions. The office provides strategic leadership, direction, oversight, and consultation on critical business and management operations and partners with the scientists and program staff in support of the NIDDK mission. The office oversees administrative management, financial management, acquisitions and purchasing, ethics, information technology, and workforce development and planning. It also develops and implements administrative policies, procedures, and risk management programs.
Office of Minority Health Research Coordination (OMHRC)
TheOffice of Minority Health Research Coordinationaddresses diseases and disorders that disproportionately affect minority populations. The OMHRC monitors implementation of the Institute's strategic plan for health disparities and builds on the partnership with the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities at the NIH. The OMHRC also develops initiatives to train new and early career investigators who are underrepresented in biomedical research. OMHRC also tracks and evaluates the Institute’s progress in training underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities in biomedical research.
Office of Obesity Research
The Office of Obesity Research coordinates obesity-related research within the NIDDK and carries out its functions through the NIDDK Obesity Research Working Group. The co-directors represent the two divisions primarily responsible for obesity-related extramural research: DDN and DEM.
The Obesity Research Working Group includes representatives of DDN, DEM, KUH, the NIDDK Review Branch, the Office of Scientific Program and Policy Analysis (OSPPA), and the Office of Communications and Public Liaison (OCPL).The working group
- provides a forum for sharing and coordinating trans-NIDDK and trans-NIH obesity research activities
- helps the NIDDK director identify research opportunities, initiatives, and advances
- identifies and plans workshops and conferences
- prepares obesity-related reports and inquiries
Office of Communications and Public Liaison (OCPL)
The NIDDK Office of Communications and Public Liaison explains, translates, and promotes NIDDK-related research. OCPL responds to queries from the public and the media and reaches out to broad and targeted audiences with health awareness and prevention messages. OCPL seeks to be compassionate, collaborative, transparent, and responsible in all interactions, and vigilantly responsible stewards of public funds and public trust.OCPL provides
- health informationfor patients, health professionals, and the public seeking information on NIDDK topics
- media inquiry responsefor reportersseeking information from NIDDK, including interviews with scientists
- means tocontact uswith questions or requests
Office of Scientific Program and Policy Analysis (OSPPA)
The NIDDK Office of Scientific Program and Policy Analysis coordinates, analyzes, and writes scientific program reports, briefing materials, and other documents, including the annual report, NIDDK Recent Advances & Emerging Opportunities.These documents present NIDDK’s scientific accomplishments and plans to public policy makers, including Congress; the scientific community; voluntary health organizations; and other audiences. OSPPA advises the NIDDK director and senior scientific management on strategic planning, assessment approaches and science policy issues. OSPPA also serves as aliaison for dialogue with representatives of professional and patient advocacy groups and congressional staff.
Technology Advancement Office (TAO)
The NIDDK Technology Advancement Office reviews, drafts, and negotiates various transactional agreements for members of the global scientific community who wish to access research materials developed by NIDDK scientists and/or collaborate with NIDDK on a clinical trial or other research. In addition, TAO evaluates invention disclosures provided by the Institute’s research staff, makes determinations regarding the filing of patent applications on discoveries and inventions, and assists in product development strategy.
NIDDK conducts and supports research on many of the most common, costly, and chronic conditions to improve health. Learn more.What is diabetes Niddk NIH gov? ›
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems, such as heart disease, nerve damage, eye problems, and kidney disease.What are the 3 early warning signs of kidney disease? ›
Generally, earlier stages are known as 1 to 3. And as kidney disease progresses, you may notice the following symptoms. Nausea and vomiting, muscle cramps, loss of appetite, swelling via feet and ankles, dry, itchy skin, shortness of breath, trouble sleeping, urinating either too much or too little.Is NIDDK under NIH? ›
Rodgers was named director of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)—one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)—on April 1, 2007.Where is NIDDK located? ›
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) is based at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland. Other NIDDK offices are located in Phoenix, Arizona.What is a normal A1c level for a woman? ›
The normal A1c is less than 5.7%. You have a higher risk for diabetes if your A1c is 5.7% to 6.4%. If your level is 6.5% or higher, you have diabetes. The A1c test result also can be used to find your estimated average glucose, or eAG.What is normal blood sugar by age? ›
From 90 to 130 mg/dL (5.0 to 7.2 mmol/L) for adults. From 90 to 130 mg/dL (5.0 to 7.2 mmol/L) for children, 13 to 19 years old. From 90 to 180 mg/dL (5.0 to 10.0 mmol/L) for children, 6 to 12 years old. From 100 to 180 mg/dL (5.5 to 10.0 mmol/L) for children under 6 years old.What is a normal blood sugar level immediately after eating? ›
These are typical targets: Before a meal: 80 to 130 mg/dL. Two hours after the start of a meal: Less than 180 mg/dL.What is harmful to kidneys? ›
Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common risk factors for kidney disease. However, obesity, smoking, genetics, gender, and age can also increase the risk ( 3 ). Uncontrolled blood sugar and high blood pressure cause damage to blood vessels in the kidneys, reducing their ability to function optimally ( 4 ).What medications help kidney function? ›
ACE inhibitors and ARBs are two types of blood pressure medicine that may slow the loss of kidney function and delay kidney failure.
Chronic kidney disease, also known as chronic renal disease or CKD, is a condition characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function over time.What color is your urine when your kidneys are failing? ›
When kidneys are failing, the increased concentration and accumulation of substances in urine lead to a darker color which may be brown, red or purple. The color change is due to abnormal protein or sugar, high levels of red and white blood cells, and high numbers of tube-shaped particles called cellular casts.Where do you itch with kidney disease? ›
It may affect your whole body or be limited to a specific area – usually your back or arms. Itching tends to affects both sides of the body at the same time and may feel internal, like a crawling feeling just below the skin.Is drinking a lot of water good for your kidneys? ›
Water helps the kidneys remove wastes from your blood in the form of urine. Water also helps keep your blood vessels open so that blood can travel freely to your kidneys, and deliver essential nutrients to them. But if you become dehydrated, then it is more difficult for this delivery system to work.How is NIDDK funded? ›
How is NIDDK funded? The NIDDK, like the rest of the NIH, receives federal funding from congressional appropriations. Each year, the NIDDK submits written testimony to the congressional appropriations subcommittee outlining current and future research plans.How many institutes are in NIH? ›
The Office of the Director (OD) is responsible for setting policy for NIH and for planning, managing, and coordinating the programs and activities of all 27 of NIH's Institutes and Centers.What is the full form of NIH? ›
About NIH | National Institutes of Health (NIH)What is diabetes who? ›
Overview. Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves.Who is nih gov? ›
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the nation's medical research agency — making important discoveries that improve health and save lives.What should your A1C be if you are over 65? ›
The key measure of diabetes control is hemoglobin A1c. For healthy over 65ers with long life expectancy, the target should be 7.0 – 7.5%.
- Canned fruit with heavy sugar syrup.
- Chewy fruit rolls.
- Regular jam, jelly, and preserves (unless you have a very small portion)
- Sweetened applesauce.
- Fruit punch, fruit drinks, fruit juice drinks.
- Exercise. Physical activity helps your body use insulin more efficiently, so it can better process the glucose in your blood. ...
- Eat Right. ...
- Take Medications as Prescribed. ...
- Manage Your Stress. ...
- Stick to a Schedule. ...
- Drink in Moderation. ...
- Monitor Your Numbers.
Normal ranges of blood sugar levels are between 70 and 130 mg/dL before eating meals. The American Diabetes Association recommends seniors have blood glucose levels of less than 180 mg/dL two hours after eating. Not every senior has the same care needs, which means they don't all need the same type of at-home care.What is the normal fasting blood sugar level for a 70 year old? ›
For most older adults, 90–150 mg/dL is a reasonable fasting glucose target range.Is coffee good for diabetics? ›
Some studies suggest that drinking coffee — whether caffeinated and decaffeinated — may actually reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. If you already have diabetes, however, the impact of caffeine on insulin action may be associated with higher or lower blood sugar levels.Can diabetics eat bread? ›
Contrary to popular belief, people with type 2 diabetes can, in fact, eat bread — the right kinds, in moderation. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) puts it this way: “Starchy foods can be part of a healthy meal plan, but portion size is key.Does chicken raise blood sugar? ›
Chicken is a perfect protein to make a fantastic low-glycemic meal. Because chicken doesn't contain any carbohydrates, it has little effect on blood sugar levels.What fruit is good for kidneys? ›
- Cranberries keep the urinary tract free from infection (UTI)
- Red grapes reduce inflammation and help protect against diabetes.
- Apples help to prevent constipation and reduce cholesterol.
Choose continuous activity such as walking, swimming, bicycling (indoors or out), skiing, aerobic dancing or any other activities in which you need to move large muscle groups continuously. Low-level strengthening exercises may also be beneficial as part of your program.Are eggs good for kidneys? ›
Egg whites provide a high quality, kidney-friendly source of protein. Plus, they're an excellent choice for people undergoing dialysis treatment, who have higher protein needs but need to limit phosphorus.
NSAIDS, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve), lead the list for drugs that cause kidney damage because of their widespread use.How can I improve my kidney function naturally? ›
- Make healthy food choices. ...
- Make physical activity part of your routine. ...
- Aim for a healthy weight. ...
- Get enough sleep. ...
- Stop smoking. ...
- Limit alcohol intake link. ...
- Explore stress-reducing activities. ...
- Manage diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
- Pain medications also known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ...
- Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) ...
- Cholesterol medications (statins) ...
- Antibiotic medications. ...
- Diabetes medications. ...
- Antacids. ...
- Herbal supplements and vitamins. ...
- Contrast dye.
In Stage 1 CKD, the damage to your kidneys is mild. Your kidneys are still working well, but you may have signs of kidney damage or physical damage to your kidneys. Stage 1 CKD means you have a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 90 or greater, but there is protein in your urine (i.e., your pee).What is the highest level of kidney disease? ›
- Stage 1 with normal or high GFR (GFR > 90 mL/min)
- Stage 2 Mild CKD (GFR = 60-89 mL/min)
- Stage 3A Moderate CKD (GFR = 45-59 mL/min)
- Stage 3B Moderate CKD (GFR = 30-44 mL/min)
- Stage 4 Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 mL/min)
- Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)
- Acute prerenal kidney failure. Insufficient blood flow to the kidneys can cause acute prerenal kidney failure. ...
- Acute intrinsic kidney failure. ...
- Chronic prerenal kidney failure. ...
- Chronic intrinsic kidney failure. ...
- Chronic post-renal kidney failure.
Clear urine is a sign of good hydration and a healthy urinary tract. However, if they consistently notice clear urine and also have extreme or unusual thirst, it is best to speak to a doctor.Is it normal to pee every 2 hours? ›
Each person may urinate a different number of times per day depending on how much they drink and how well their kidneys work. According to the Cleveland Clinic, the average person should urinate somewhere between between six and eight times in a 24-hour period.What are the 3 early warning signs of kidney disease? ›
Generally, earlier stages are known as 1 to 3. And as kidney disease progresses, you may notice the following symptoms. Nausea and vomiting, muscle cramps, loss of appetite, swelling via feet and ankles, dry, itchy skin, shortness of breath, trouble sleeping, urinating either too much or too little.Can kidney problems affect your eyes? ›
Common eye problems for people with kidney disease or who are on dialysis. Dry, red, and sore eyes that feel gritty. These symptoms may occur because of impaired blinking and tear formation, leading to dry eyes. Extra calcium and phosphate can also settle in the eyes and cause irritation.
Kidney disease can affect the appearance of your fingernails, toenails, or both. People who have advanced kidney disease can develop: A white color on the upper part of one or more nails and a normal to reddish brown color below, as shown here (half-and-half nails) Pale nails.What fish is good for kidneys? ›
- Salmon. Salmon is one of the most popular fish on the menu, and it's one of the richest in omega-3s, vitamins, and minerals. ...
- Tuna. All tuna is high in protein and omega-3 fatty acids. ...
- Anchovies. ...
Without a doubt, the best drink you should be consuming in order to maintain good kidney health is mineral water. It is, after all, completely natural and packed full of vitamins and minerals vital to all organs in your body. This should form the basis of most of what you drink every day.How can I restore my kidney function? ›
Exercise may help kidney health
Being active and having a healthy body weight is also important to kidney health. Some studies show kidney function improves with exercise. Talk with your healthcare professional or dietitian if you need to lose weight.
How is NIDDK funded? The NIDDK, like the rest of the NIH, receives federal funding from congressional appropriations. Each year, the NIDDK submits written testimony to the congressional appropriations subcommittee outlining current and future research plans.What is the full form of NIH? ›
About NIH | National Institutes of Health (NIH)How many institutes are in NIH? ›
The Office of the Director (OD) is responsible for setting policy for NIH and for planning, managing, and coordinating the programs and activities of all 27 of NIH's Institutes and Centers.Who is NIH gov? ›
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the nation's medical research agency — making important discoveries that improve health and save lives.Who is eligible for AK award? ›
Be a U.S. citizen or permanent resident of the United States (does NOT apply to K99/R00) Be located at a U.S. institution. Have preliminary data on which to base his/her hypothesis-driven 3 to 5-year research project in an area of interest to the NIDDK.What is the NIH budget for 2022? ›
In its fiscal year 2022 appropriation for the National Institutes of Health, Congress increased the agency's base budget by $2 billion to $45 billion, marking the seventh year in a row it has received a multi-billion-dollar budget increase.
NIDDK will use the R21 mechanism only when specified by specific PAs or RFAs that it has initiated or in which it participates. View R21 FOAs in which NIDDK participates. The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) will not accept R21 applications in response to the Parent R21 Announcement.What is the purpose of the NIH? ›
NIH is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation. Its mission is to seek fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce illness and disability.Is the NIH trustworthy? ›
The National Institutes of Health website is a good place to start for reliable health information. As a rule, health websites sponsored by Federal Government agencies are good sources of information.Is NIH a government agency? ›
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary Federal agency for conducting and supporting medical research.Is NIH part of FDA? ›
The agencies are complementary in their roles and functions—NIH supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research and FDA ensures the safety and effectiveness of medical and other products.Who is the owner of NIH? ›
It was founded in the late 1880s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.Who leads the NIH? ›
|Name||In Office from||To|
|Lawrence A. Tabak *||December 20, 2021||Present|
|Francis S. Collins||August 17, 2009||December 19, 2021|
|Raynard S. Kington (Acting)||October 31, 2008||August 16, 2009|
|Elias A. Zerhouni||May 2, 2002||October 31, 2008|
The National Institutes of Health traces its roots to 1887, when a one-room laboratory was created within the Marine Hospital Service (MHS), predecessor agency to the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS). The MHS had been established in 1798 to provide for the medical care of merchant seamen.Is NIH peer reviewed? ›
NIH has a longstanding and time-tested system of peer review to identify the most promising biomedical research. This document provides an overview of the NIH peer review system, including descriptions of its core values and safeguards on fairness.How big is NIH? ›
NIH has more than 75 buildings in a campus-like environment over 300 acres. Some research is performed on campus in state-of-the-art laboratory facilities, although more than 80% of research activities are conducted by scientists working in every state and around the world.