Who We Are | Sleep Foundation (2022)

Medical Advisory Board

Our medical advisory board oversees the publication of all health-related content on SleepFoundation.org. This highly qualified team is made up of physicians, psychologists, academic researchers, and other sleep experts with decades of experience in sleep science and health fields. Their knowledge and insights about sleep science and human health ensure every article and guide on our site reflects the latest data, findings, and trends.

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David Gozal

Dr. David Gozal is a renowned expert on sleep and its relationship to human health. As the Pediatrician-in-Chief at the University of Missouri Women’s and Children’s Hospital, his research focuses on how sleeping problems, especially sleep apnea, can adversely affect both adults and children. Dr. Gozal has received numerous grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for his research. He has published more than 725 peer-reviewed journal articles and is an active speaker about key topics in sleep medicine.

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Michael V Vitiello

Dr. Michael V. Vitiello is an established leader in sleep research. He is a Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Washington where he has been active in NIH-funded research to advance the neuroscience of sleep and aging. Dr. Vitiello has served on numerous advisory boards, including at the National Sleep Foundation, Sleep Research Society and the National Center for Sleep Disorders Research, and is an active reviewer and editor for multiple peer-reviewed journals about sleep science.

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David Rapoport

Dr. David M. Rapoport is a Professor of Pulmonology at the Icahn School of Medicine and the Director of the Sleep Medicine Research Program at Mount Sinai in New York City. He is a leading authority on sleep apnea and holds multiple patents for innovations in nasal CPAP treatment. Dr. Rapoport serves on the Board of Directors for the American Sleep Apnea Association and founded the Foundation for Research in Sleep Disorders, a non-profit that promotes scientific discovery and professional education.

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Tom Roth

Dr. Thomas Roth is a leading figure in the field of sleep medicine. He is a Professor of Psychiatry and the Director of the Sleep Disorders and Research Center at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. Dr. Roth has held leadership positions at the National Sleep Foundation, the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, and the World Health Organization. His publication history includes hundreds of peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, and he serves on the editorial board of multiple medical journals.

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Dr. Wendy M. Troxel

Behavioral Scientist

Dr. Troxel is a Senior Behavioral Scientist at the RAND Corporation and holds adjunct faculty positions at the University of Pittsburgh and University of Utah. She is also a licensed clinical psychologist and certified behavioral sleep medicine specialist. She is author of the recently released book Sharing the Covers: Every Couple’s Guide to Better Sleep, in which she shares her extensive research and clinical experience on the importance of healthy sleep for healthy relationships.

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Steve C. Sun


Dr. Steve C. Sun is a former attending physician and the Clinical Director of the Perioperative Medicine, Physician Advocate of Clinical Transformation at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. He is a board-certified academic anesthesiologist. In addition to his medical training, Dr. Sun also holds oral and maxillofacial surgery training, a master’s degree in public health, a master’s degree in business administration, and a juris doctor degree in law. Dr. Sun is currently work with Tenet Healthcare.

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Dr. Rebecca Robbins

Sleep Researcher, Instructor in Medicine

Dr. Robbins is an Instructor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School and an Associate Scientist at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Her research uses marketing and novel communication tools and technologies (e.g. smartphones and other mobile devices) to design persuasive behavior change interventions to improve sleep and circadian health. Her research has appeared in such peer-reviewed publications as Prevention Science, Aging, Sleep Medicine, and the Journal of Sleep Research. In 2011, Dr. Robbins co-authored a book on techniques for how to get good sleep entitled Sleep for Success! with Dr. James B. Maas. Dr. Robbins has been interviewed in such publications as the New York Times, the Financial Times, and Readers’ Digest. She has appeared in national television segments for ABC Nightline, Fox Business News, and CBS This Morning. Dr. Robbins holds a Ph.D. in Communication and Health Marketing from Cornell University and has held teaching positions at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Doha, Qatar and Harvard College.

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Medical Review Panel

Our medical review panel ensures that SleepFoundation.org’s content and research uphold the highest standards of medical integrity. Our dedicated team is made up of the best and brightest in sleep science and medicine. All of our content is fact-checked and reviewed by our medical review panel. This additional step ensures the information we publish is accurate, evidence-based, up-to-date, and trustworthy.

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Dr. Abhinav Singh

Sleep Physician

Dr. Abhinav Singh, board certified in Sleep Medicine and Internal Medicine, is the Medical Director of the Indiana Sleep Center, which is accredited by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. He is also a Clinical Assistant Professor at Marian University College of Medicine in Indianapolis, where he developed and teaches a Sleep Medicine rotation to medical students.

Dr. Singh’s research and clinical practice focuses on the entire myriad of sleep disorders, including excessive daytime sleepiness, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, chronic snoring, insomnia, and sleep education. He firmly believes in his philosophy of “360 degrees of sleep awareness,” in which every single person must be educated about the importance of sleep so that they can further educate others. Along with being a fellow of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Dr. Singh is a peer reviewer for the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Sleep Health (from the National Sleep Foundation) and the Journal of Sleep Disorders: Treatment and Care. Dr. Singh is co-author with Charlotte Jensen of the forthcoming nonfiction book “Sleep to Heal: Refresh, Restore, and Revitalize Your Life” (Humanix Books, 2023).

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(Video) How does Sleep Work and WHY do we need it?
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Dr. Joel Gould

Dentist, Sleep Apnea Expert

Dr. Joel Gould has been practicing in Southern California since 2001. His General and Cosmetic Dental Practices treat patients of all ages and offer a broad range of treatments. Dr. Gould gained experience in pediatric dentistry, geriatrics, and hospital dentistry in Vancouver Canada for 10 years before moving to the Los Angeles area.

Dr. Gould has been treating obstructive sleep apnea in Manhattan Beach for several years before he was diagnosed with sleep apnea in 2015 himself. His research into the underlying cause of this strange new disease led him to create his new “Sleep Restoration Program” designed to change the public’s perception of the ever-growing epidemic of insomnia and sleep apnea. His new book “The Modern Epidemic” describes a new organic health paradigm regarding treating autoimmune disease and chronic illness organically without pharmaceutical medications. The program focuses on sleep as an antiaging, and natural regeneration. His ultimate goal is to transform the world of insomnia, snoring and sleep apnea with his unique sleep restoration program. Dr. Gould strongly feels that sleep disorders are both reversible and preventable, which opposes what is commonly accepted in medicine.

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Dr. Nilong Vyas


Dr. Vyas of Sleepless in NOLA Sleep Coaching is a Pediatrician, Public Health Specialist, and Board-Certified Sleep Expert. Getting babies to sleep is one of the most controversial, contradictory, and confusing aspects of parenting and Dr. Vyas not only takes parenting goals but the child’s developmental goals into consideration with her recommendations. She is knowledgeable not only of the common sleep approaches but more importantly, has a pediatric medical knowledge base. Her patients and clients adore their sleep doctor because she considers everything when giving advice knowing that sleep is not a solitary issue but intimately involved with the child’s holistic wellbeing, diet, development, and schedule.

Dr. Nilong Vyas is the mother of two well-rested boys and has been putting children to sleep professionally since 2014! She is a firm believer in the value of sleep (for the well-being of both children and their parents) and the need for healthy sleep habits. Her mantra ‘from good sleep comes good eaters, readers, and behaviors’ is the foundation of her practice. She passionately believes that well-rested children develop better socially, emotionally, and academically with fewer behavior problems. A well-rested child will result in a more harmonious household for all.

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Dr. Alex Dimitriu


Dr. Dimitriu’s significant experience in both psychiatry and sleep medicine has taught him two important things. Sleep is fundamental to almost anything mind related – from anxiety to depression, energy, motivation, and even memory. He has also learned that everyone truly is a mix of nature and nurture – biology as well as psychology, and you have to treat the whole. With this balanced approach, I have seen truly amazing outcomes for some of the most challenging cases. I work as the founder of Menlo Park Psychiatry and Sleep Medicine, and am board certified in psychiatry as well as sleep medicine. My practice is a balanced mix of optimizing for peak performance by day, and peak restorative sleep by night. My patients are my teachers, and I work with some of the brightest minds to achieve peace, performance, and lasting results.

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Dr. Kent Smith

Dentist, Sleep Apnea Expert

Dr. Kent Smith is double board certified in dental sleep medicine with over 20 years of experience in the treatment of sleep breathing disorders. He is president of the American Sleep and Breathing Academy and is on the advisory committee of the Australasian Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine. He earned his Doctor of Dental Surgery and Dentistry from Baylor College of Dentistry, and his bachelor’s degree from Lubbock Christian University in biology. In addition to running his private practice in Dallas, Texas, Dr. Smith is the founder and primary facilitator of 21st Century Sleep Seminars, a series of training events that prepares dental professionals to incorporate dental sleep medicine into their practices. He is also frequently published in Inside Dentistry, Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry, Sleep Review, and other industry publications.

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Dr. Jenny Iyo

Physical Therapist

Jennifer Iyo is a Doctor of Physical Therapy who works in an outpatient orthopedic clinic in Seattle. She attended A.T. Still University in Phoenix, Arizona, where she earned her DPT. She specializes in hands-on manual therapy and tailored exercise programs for patients of all ages and ailments.

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Dr. Kimberly Truong

Sleep Physician

Dr. Kimberly Truong, MD MPH, is a Stanford-trained sleep physician with board certifications in sleep medicine and internal medicine. She is the founder and lead physician of Earlybird Health, a leading digital sleep clinic with hassle-free home sleep apnea testing. She believes that good sleep should be accessible to all and navigating the healthcare system should not cause any more sleepless nights. She has been awarded the Young Achiever Award by the American College of Physician and the Young Investigator Award by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Dr. Truong holds an NIH grant for a multicenter clinical research trial on central sleep apnea. Her research on obstructive sleep apnea and hospital readmissions was listed as 2018’s most read research article in JCSM, the nation’s top sleep medicine journal. She has also published peer-reviewed articles on sleep disorders in women and pregnancy. Her interest lies in sleep medicine and technology, sleep apnea and public health, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep in women’s health. During her medical training, she had the opportunity to work closely with the ‘Founding Fathers of Sleep Medicine,’ including Dr. Christian Guilleminault and Dr. William Dement. She hopes to continue advancing the sleep field by converging sleep medicine with technology and providing sleep education and care to those who need it most.

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Dr. John DeBanto

Internal Medicine Physician

Dr. John DeBanto has been a medical doctor and gastroenterologist for over 20 years. He is board certified in both internal medicine and gastroenterology. He is also a Fellow with the American College of Gastroenterology, serving on the patient care committee. His professional interests include cancer screening, obesity management, and therapeutic endoscopy. He’s certified to place the Orbera gastric balloon for his patients desiring weight loss. He particularly enjoys educating his patients on nutrition, cancer screening, and weight issues. He is acutely aware of how obesity can lead to significant morbidity and in particular sleep apnea, fatty liver, cancer, and cardiac issues. In addition to his medical practice, he is involved in charitable organizations such as the Lymphoma and Leukemia Society and the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation. Outside of the office, Dr DeBanto enjoys spending time with his daughter, cycling, traveling and following his University of Dayton Flyer’s basketball team.

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(Video) A walk through the stages of sleep | Sleeping with Science, a TED series
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Dr. Anis Rehman


Dr. Anis Rehman, MD is an American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certified physician in Internal Medicine as well as Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism who practices in Illinois. He completed his residency at Cleveland Clinic Akron General, and fellowship training at the University of Cincinnati in Ohio. Dr. Rehman has several dozens of research publications in reputable journals and conferences. He also enjoys traveling and landscape photography.

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Dr. Ealena Callender


Dr. Ealena Callender is a board-certified obstetrician-gynecologist. In practice for 14 years, Dr. Callender is passionate about helping women reach their full potential in every stage of their lives. Her goal is to empower women and encourage them to be partners in their care. Dr. Callender takes a broad view of women’s health, realizing that there are many factors that can contribute to overall wellness. Prior to her medical career, Dr. Callender was a journalist and continues to use media to help raise awareness of important women’s health issues. Currently a candidate for a Master’s Degree at George Washington University’s Milken Institute School of Public Health, she hopes to continue making an impact on improving women’s health on a national and international scale.

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Dr. Heather Wright


Dr. Heather Wright, MD is a board certified Anatomic and Clinical Pathologist, with sub-specialty board certification in hematopathology. She completed her pathology residency at St. Louis University, surgical pathology fellowship at Washington University in St. Louis, and hematopathology fellowship at St. Louis University. She has nearly 10 years of experience in the study and diagnosis of disease, with special interest in leukemia and lymphoma, and has also served as a blood bank medical director. Dr. Wright enjoys spending time in nature, traveling, an active lifestyle, and spending time with her husband and fur babies.

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Dr. Joshua Tal


Dr. Joshua Tal is a licensed psychologist with a private practice in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City. He specializes in insomnia treatment, addiction recovery and life transition stress. Dr. Tal studied sleep, health and addiction treatments under top clinicians and researchers at Stanford University, VA hospitals and rehabs across the country. His ideas and approaches to sleep have appeared in New York Magazine, CNN, Huffington Post, Men’s Health, Real Simple, POPSUGAR, Well+Good, and City of Sleep. Dr. Tal uses revolutionary treatments that have been proven to increase sleep, cut out substances and fortify a quality life.

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Dr. Michael Grandner

Clinical Psychologist

Dr. Michael Grandner is a licensed clinical psychologist, board-certified in Behavioral Sleep Medicine. He is the Director of the Sleep and Health Research Program at the University of Arizona and Director of the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program at the Banner-University Medical Center in Tucson. Dr. Grandner is Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Psychology, Medicine, Nutritional Sciences, and Clinical Translational Science at the University of Arizona. He is an internationally recognized expert in sleep health, has over 200 academic publications, and frequently consults with health, technology, athletics, and nutritional companies and organizations regarding sleep, health, and performance. Read more about him at michaelgrandner.com.

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Our management team drives editorial and product testing at SleepFoundation.org. The team’s extensive expertise in mattresses, bedding, and sleep products coupled with its background in media, editorial, and digital marketing helps to make SleepFoundation.org one of the largest sleep information portals online.

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Keith Cushner

Executive Director, Product

Keith is a sleep product expert with close to a decade of experience researching, developing, and testing sleep products. At Sleep Foundation, Keith oversees the testing lab, product evaluation process, and recommendations across all product categories. He is a sleep science coach that’s been quoted in major outlets like HLN, NBC News, The Washington Post, Reader’s Digest, and more—helping millions of consumers get a better night’s sleep. When he’s not testing sleep products, you can find Keith digging through crates in record stores across, eating or running around his home of Seattle, or lounging with his wife and cat.

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Tom Ryan, Ph.D.

Head of Product Testing

Tom is the Director of Product Testing for SleepFoundation.org. After a decade working in higher education, Tom brings the same eye for rigorous research to sleep products. He works with the product testing team to gather subjective and objective experiences and feedback, and makes sure the testing outcomes are reflected in Sleep Foundation’s written and video reviews. He holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy and Religious Studies from the University of Denver.

(Video) How Sleep Affects Your Brain

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Logan Foley

Managing Editor, Health & Product

Logan is a Certified Sleep Science Coach with a deep understanding of what it means to struggle with sleep. Her years of experience researching and testing sleep products – including mattresses, natural sleep aids, and bedding – are critical to her role helping lead the editorial team. As a chronic insomniac, she aims to bring her findings to anyone struggling with getting adequate rest. Her expertise is in creating informative, trustworthy, and useful health content. When she’s not testing mattresses or researching CBT-I, she enjoys spending time in the sunshine with her husband and her dog Pepper.

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Katie Schaeffer

Senior Editor, Health

Katie is Senior Features Editor for SleepFoundation.org. She has developed and maintained evidence-based, patient-centered web content on medical laboratory testing for Testing.com and other sites. Katie first got involved with patient education more than 14 years ago as an editor for an award-winning website dedicated to informing the public about laboratory testing. Originally launched by AACC, a global scientific and medical professional organization, the site reached over two million visitors a month. Initially trained as a laboratory professional, Katie has extensive experience in laboratory testing and working in various medical laboratories. She has a degree in microbiology from San Diego State University and is a board-certified Medical Laboratory Scientist.

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Daniel Noyed

Senior Editor, Product

Danny is a Minneapolis native who studied neuroscience as well as human development from a psychological perspective at the University of Puget Sound. He is a Certified Sleep Science Coach with a deep understanding of sleep and the body’s needs. Danny has personally tested hundreds of sleep products and has an extensive base of knowledge when it comes to mattresses. Outside of the world of sleep, his interests include electronic music, fashion, and old myths and legends.

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Lauren Fountain

Senior Editor

Lauren is a Certified Sleep Science Coach from the Atlanta area with an educational background in linguistics. She has experience testing a wide variety of sleep products, from everyday staples like pillows, sheets, and mattresses to more obscure items such as night guards for bruxism and white noise machines. When not testing sleep products, Lauren enjoys hiking, sewing, and watching movies while under a weighted blanket.

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Jackson Lindeke

Director, Product Experience

Jackson leads editorial product recommendations at Sleep Foundation, transforming the data from our sleep product test lab into real world takeaways for consumers. He has spent over half a decade developing protocol to evaluate and measure the impacts of products on sleep quality. As a cited sleep product expert, Jackson helps guide millions of shoppers to find personalized recommendations for everything from pillows to bedding to mattresses.

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Jeremy Klein

Senior Product Expert

Jeremy is a sleep product tester with a passion for methodology and data collection. He’s spent the last three years at Sleep Foundation testing nearly every mattress, pillow, and sheet on the market, and has gained a holistic understanding of how to get the most accurate and universal results possible. When he’s not working, Jeremy likes to play guitar, climb rocks, and watch old movies.

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Eric Suni

Staff Writer

Eric Suni has over a decade of experience in health communications. For over seven years at Fred Hutch, Seattle’s prestigious cancer research center, he worked as a science writer and information specialist for the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Information Service, communicating directly with cancer patients, their family members, and the general public to explain complex topics in an understandable and compassionate way. He is passionate about promoting health and wellness by creating up-to-date, evidence-based resources and believes that improving sleep can have far-reaching benefits for public health.

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Danielle Pacheco

Staff Writer

Danielle is originally from Vancouver, BC, where she has spent many hours staring at her ceiling trying to fall asleep. She studied the science of sleep with a degree in psychology at the University of British Columbia, and she now channels her frustration into researching sleep solutions and sharing insights with fellow insomniacs. Danielle spends her downtime trying out new recipes and working off the calories on the soccer field.

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Austin Meadows

Staff Writer

Austin is a professional writer and researcher who has spent the last decade helping people find accurate, helpful information through authoritative web publications. Through his own sleep struggles, including a moderate case of obstructive sleep apnea, Austin has learned the importance of a good night’s sleep. When he’s not testing sleep products or researching a topic, you can find him running, cooking, or traveling abroad.

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Jay Summer

Staff Writer

Jay Summer is a health content writer and editor. She holds a Bachelor of Science in psychology, along with master’s degrees in writing and public policy. Previously, she taught writing courses at the University of South Florida.

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Brad Nehring

Staff Writer

Brad is a lifelong resident of the Pacific Northwest who holds a bachelor’s degree in English from Western Washington University. As someone who has lived with sleep problems throughout his adult life, Brad is passionate about helping others get the rest they need. He’s professionally tested and reviewed sleep products for more than five years. Prior to his current role, Brad was an associate editor for Seattleite.com and a product copywriter for Nordstrom. He also volunteered with the Peace Corps in Zambia from 2006 to 2008, and taught English in South Korea from 2009 to 2010.

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(Video) David Cloud, CEO, National Sleep Foundation at Digital Health LIVE CES WebMD Lounge

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Hilary Achauer

Contributing Writer

Hilary Achauer is a journalist and marketing content writer specializing in health, wellness, and fitness. She has written for Slate, The Washington Post, The Week, Men’s Health, and the CrossFit Journal.

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Lisa Marie Basile

Contributing Writer

Lisa Marie Basile is a health journalist, author, and patient advocate living with ankylosing spondylitis. Her work is found in The New York Times, Self, Healthline, GoodRx, WebMD, HealthCentral, and more. She has a master’s degree in writing from The New School in New York City.

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Karen Blum

Contributing Writer

Karen is a health and science reporter in the Baltimore area. Her work has appeared in the Baltimore Sun, on AARP.org, and in numerous magazines for physicians and allied health professionals.

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Jennifer Bringle

Contributing Writer

Jennifer has written about health topics for Glamour, Health, Woman’s World, Well + Good, and Healthline, among other outlets.

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Kelsey Casselbury

Contributing Writer

Kelsey is a contributing writer with a degree in journalism from Penn State University. Her work has appeared on Livestrong.com and Testing.com, as well as in School Nutrition and National Culinary Review.

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Lisa Fields

Contributing Writer

Lisa is a freelance writer who specializes in writing about health, sleep, psychology, and nutrition. She lives in New Jersey.

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Rena Goldman

Contributing Writer

Rena Goldman is a Los Angeles-based freelance journalist and editor with more than a decade of experience. She covers health, wellness, mental health, small business, and how politics and policies impact our daily lives. Her articles have been featured in national publications and lifestyle brands.

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Beth Krietsch

Contributing Writer

Beth is a freelance health writer. She has a master’s degree in public health, and her writing appears in SELF, HuffPost, Time, Prevention, and more.

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Sarah Michaud

Contributing Writer

Sarah is a science writer based in London. When she’s not at her keyboard, Sarah is traveling, cooking, or napping.

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Olivia Murillo

Contributing Writer

Olivia is the lab administrator for Dr. Matthew Walker’s Center for Human Sleep Science at UC Berkeley. She currently manages a longitudinal project studying sleep and cognition in healthy older adults, and has assisted research investigating various detrimental effects of sleep deprivation in young adults. Olivia earned a B.S. in Cognitive Science from UC Berkeley, and some of her research interests include investigating the impact of sleep deprivation on mood as well as sleep regularity.

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Erin Quinn-Kong

Contributing Writer

Formerly editor-in-chief of Austin Monthly, Erin is a freelance writer and editor who specializes in lifestyle content. She lives in Austin, Texas, and is working on a novel.

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Constance Sommer

Contributing Writer

Constance Sommer is a freelance writer living in Los Angeles. Her articles and essays have appeared in The New York Times, the Washington Post, Vogue, Knowable, and AARP, among others.

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Susan Johnston Taylor

Contributing Writer

Susan Johnston Taylor is a freelance writer in Austin, Texas, covering business, health, and lifestyle topics. She’s especially passionate about sleep, especially how it impacts mood and overall health.

(Video) Kate Nash - Foundations (Official Video)

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Emma Yasinski

Contributing Writer

Emma Yasinski is a science and medical journalist based in Florida. Her work has appeared in MedShadow.org, National Geographic, Undark.org, and more.


How credible is the sleep foundation? ›

SleepFoundation.org is a trusted source of accurate and unbiased information about sleep-related topics.

What does the sleep foundation do? ›

The National Sleep Foundation is an independent nonprofit organization dedicated to improving public health and safety through public understanding of sleep and sleep disorders, and by supporting public education, sleep-related research, and advocacy.

Is the National Sleep Foundation the same as the sleep foundation? ›

SleepFoundation.org was acquired from the National Sleep Foundation in 2019 and is no longer affiliated with the non-profit organization. To learn more about the National Sleep Foundation, visit their website.

How many hours sleep National Sleep Foundation? ›

Adults: Between the ages of 18 and 64, adults should aim for seven to nine hours of nightly sleep. If you're older than 65, you may need a little less: seven to eight hours is recommended.

What is the best sleep therapy? ›

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) can help you control or eliminate negative thoughts and actions that keep you awake and is generally recommended as the first line of treatment for people with insomnia. Typically, CBT-I is equally or more effective than sleep medications.

Can you take a nap with foundation on? ›

"Taking long naps with makeup on can lead to unwanted breakouts and wrinkles," she said. How does that work? "Napping in makeup can cause an increased exposure to free radicals," the PA explained. What's more, a full face of makeup can actually suck moisture out of your skin, and clog up pores.

Can you sleep on a mattress without a foundation? ›

Without a proper foundation, your mattress will “sink” and become uncomfortable. But what's even worse than the lack of comfort this sinkage causes is the lack of support. If your mattress doesn't evenly support your body as you sleep, then you'll likely wake up in the morning with aches and pains.

Is 6 hours sleep enough? ›

For many of us, six hours of sleep is not enough for one night. Scientific evidence indicates the average sleep need is around 8 hours and 10 minutes per night (plus or minus 44 minutes or so), with a not-insignificant percentage of the population (13.5%) requiring nine hours or more of sleep time.

How many hours of sleep do adults need? ›

How many hours of sleep are enough for good health?
Age groupRecommended amount of sleep
3 to 5 years10 to 13 hours per 24 hours, including naps
6 to 12 years9 to 12 hours per 24 hours
13 to 18 years8 to 10 hours per 24 hours
Adults7 or more hours a night
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Can you replace sleep for anything? ›

Dr. Philip Gehrman, a sleep expert and assistant professor in Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, tells Philly.com that there is no substitute for sleep.

How long can you go without sleep? ›

The longest recorded time without sleep is approximately 264 hours, or just over 11 consecutive days. Although it's unclear exactly how long humans can survive without sleep, it isn't long before the effects of sleep deprivation start to show. After only three or four nights without sleep, you can start to hallucinate.

What is the 3 3 1 rule sleep? ›

3 hours before bed: No more food or alcohol. 2 hours before bed: No more work. 1 hour before bed: No more screen time (shut off all phones, TVs and computers). 0: The number of times you'll need to hit snooze in the AM.

Is 12 minutes of deep sleep good? ›

Scientists agree that sleep is essential to health, and while stages 1 to 4 and REM sleep are all important, deep sleep is the most essential of all for feeling rested and staying healthy. The average healthy adult gets roughly 1 to 2 hours of deep sleep per 8 hours of nightly sleep.

Is 4 hours sleep better than 0? ›

Ideally, you should try to get more than 90 minutes of sleep. Sleeping between 90 and 110 minutes gives your body time to complete one full sleep cycle and can minimize grogginess when you wake. But any sleep is better than not at all — even if it's a 20-minute nap. For more sleep support, check out our sleep shop.

What is the safest sleep aid for seniors? ›

In the elderly, nonbenzodiazepines such as zolpidem, eszopiclone, zaleplon, and ramelteon are safer and better tolerated than tricyclic antidepressants, antihistamines, and benzodiazepines. Pharmacotherapy should be recommended only after sleep hygiene is addressed, however.

What is the strongest herb for sleep? ›

1. Valerian root
  • According to a 2013 review , valerian root is the herb that people most commonly use to reduce insomnia. ...
  • A 2020 review and meta-analysis investigated the efficacy and safety of valerian root as a treatment for certain sleep disorders.

What vitamins help with sleep and anxiety? ›

Supplements That Help You Sleep Better
  • Iron. Iron is a major component in our blood that provides oxygen to our cells and tissues. ...
  • Magnesium. ...
  • Vitamin D. ...
  • Melatonin. ...
  • B vitamins. ...
  • Chamomile. ...
  • Calcium and Potassium. ...
  • Vitamin E.
20 Mar 2019

Does leaving makeup on age your skin? ›

Sleeping with Makeup On Leads to Premature Aging

During the cell turnover process, new skin cells push to the surface while your skin sheds old cells. Makeup traps these dead skin cells, leaving a dull complexion while causing your skin to appear aged.

Does makeup age your skin? ›

Makeup and Skin Aging

While makeup doesn't directly age your skin, some ingredients used in cosmetics and skin care products can potentially cause skin irritation and allergic reactions. Overusing oily makeup can also clog your pores, which may increase your risk of experiencing acne breakouts.

Why does makeup look better after a few hours? ›

Why does makeup look much better at the end of the day than after applying? Probably because after a few hours, your makeup tends to "mesh" with your skin, making it look more "lived in", or more "realistic".

Why do people not put mattresses on the floor? ›

It may result in mildew or mold, particularly in warm or humid environments. It restricts airflow around the mattress, which can cause it to feel uncomfortably warm. It makes it easier for insects, including bed bugs, to gain access to the mattress.

Do you need a box spring with a mattress foundation? ›

The short answer is - most probably not. Most modern mattresses don't require the extra support of a box spring, especially bed frames with solid foundations or memory foam mattresses. However, you need to consider a few deciding factors to see if your mattress and box spring are a match made in heaven or not.

What is the difference between a box spring and a foundation? ›

A box spring is a wooden or metal frame containing steel coils. It's usually covered in a breathable fabric. A foundation, on the other hand, is a frame of any material with wooden panels, or slats, laid across the top. This is also usually covered with a light fabric.

Do naps count as sleep? ›

Using naps to “top up” on sleep can be an effective means of increasing total sleep in a 24-hour period and has proven benefits for performance, efficiency, mood, and alertness, and can reduce fatigue and accidents.

How much sleep is too much? ›

How Much Sleep Is Too Much? Sleep needs can vary from person to person, but in general, experts recommend that healthy adults get an average of 7 to 9 hours per night of shuteye. If you regularly need more than 8 or 9 hours of sleep per night to feel rested, it might be a sign of an underlying problem, Polotsky says.

Is it OK to sleep 4 hours a day? ›

For most people, 4 hours of sleep per night isn't enough to wake up feeling rested and mentally alert, no matter how well they sleep. There's a common myth that you can adapt to chronically restricted sleep, but there's no evidence that the body functionally adapts to sleep deprivation.

How much sleep does an 80 year old need? ›

Older adults need about the same amount of sleep as all adults—7 to 9 hours each night. But, older people tend to go to sleep earlier and get up earlier than they did when they were younger.

Who has slept with the most males in a day? ›

Lisa Sparks an american lady holds the world record of sleeping with the highest number of partners in a day. This wasestablished at a competition between Lisa Sparks and two other women. One of them was the previous record-holder, who banged only 759 men in a day.

What time do most people sleep? ›

Americans spend an average of 7 hours and 18 minutes in bed each night. They go to bed at 11:39 p.m., wake up at 7:09 a.m., spend 23.95 minutes snoring, have an average sleep quality of 74.2 percent, and rate their wake-up mood at 57 on a scale of 100.

What happens if humans don't sleep? ›

What happens if you don't sleep? Not getting enough sleep can lower your sex drive, weaken your immune system, cause thinking issues, and lead to weight gain. When you don't get enough sleep, you may also increase your risk of certain cancers, diabetes, and even car accidents.

What can I do at night instead of sleeping? ›

Whatever is keeping you up at night, check out these 10 fun and productive things to do when you can't sleep.
  • Clean the house. ...
  • Finish your project. ...
  • Read a book. ...
  • Watch a TV show or movie. ...
  • Check out social media. ...
  • Write in a journal. ...
  • Organize something. ...
  • Listen to music.
17 Jul 2020

Is it OK to not sleep for 1 day? ›

While you likely don't look back upon that sleepless night as a “fun” time, you may not realize what you were putting your body through. After 24 hours without sleep, you're cognitively impaired. In fact, at just 17 hours without sleep, your judgment, memory, and hand-eye coordination skills are all suffering.

What happens if you sleep too much? ›

Too much sleep on a regular basis can increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and death according to several studies done over the years. Too much is defined as greater than nine hours. The most common cause is not getting enough sleep the night before, or cumulatively during the week.

What happens if you don't sleep for a month? ›

Right away, a lack of hand-eye coordination, decreased learning, poor mood, and impaired judgment will occur. As the lack of sleep continues, more physiological problems emerge, including hormone swings, immune system suppression, and increased blood pressure.

Is the sleep foundation peer-reviewed? ›

The National Sleep Foundation publishes Sleep Health, a peer-reviewed journal related to sleep in population health from the social science perspective.

Is the sleep research society peer-reviewed? ›

SLEEP is the leading peer-reviewed journal in sleep and circadian science.

Is the American Sleep Association legitimate? ›

The American Sleep Association (ASA) is a voluntary, non-profit, medical and scientific society dedicated to quality medical care for individuals with sleep disorders and service to its individual and center members through education, research, and the development of practice standards related to the field of sleep ...

Is sleep learning scientifically proven? ›

But those findings were debunked in the 1950s, when scientists began to use EEG to monitor sleep brain waves. Researchers found that if any learning had happened, it was only because the stimuli had woken the participants. These poor studies launched sleep learning into the trash can of pseudoscience.

Is there a link between sleep and IQ? ›

Some evidence suggests that high IQ is associated with later sleep patterns. However, it is unclear whether the relationship between IQ and later sleep is due to biological or social effects, such as the timing of working hours.

Who is the world expert on sleep? ›

Gozal is a leading world expert in the field of sleep medicine. He is known as a pioneer in the study of childhood sleep problems and the relationships between sleep disorders and neurobehavioral, cardiovascular and metabolic disease.

Who owns the Sleep company? ›

Priyanka Salot, Co-Founder, The Sleep Company, is an extrovert as a person. As their lives slid into lockdown, with partial access and repeated curfews it became difficult to catch up where they had left off. "I cannot sit confined to the four walls of my house.

Is 6 hours of sleep enough research? ›

For many of us, six hours of sleep is not enough for one night. Scientific evidence indicates the average sleep need is around 8 hours and 10 minutes per night (plus or minus 44 minutes or so), with a not-insignificant percentage of the population (13.5%) requiring nine hours or more of sleep time.

How much sleep do experts recommend? ›

National Sleep Foundation guidelines1 advise that healthy adults need between 7 and 9 hours of sleep per night. Babies, young children, and teens need even more sleep to enable their growth and development. People over 65 should also get 7 to 8 hours per night.

How many hours of sleep should adults get? ›

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society recommend that adults aged 18–60 years sleep at least 7 hours each night to promote optimal health and well-being.

Are sleep coaches worth it? ›

Sleep coaches are no panacea. Training can fail thanks to inexperienced consultants, parents who don't follow through or kids who are teething, have a cold, have extra-challenging temperaments or are too young (most experts recommend waiting until baby has reached at least four months old).

How do I get rid of sleep associations? ›

Establishing Good Sleep Habits

Of course, the easiest way to break the feed to sleep association is by not forming one at all. “Sleep associations can begin very early in infancy,” says Dr. Kansagra. “The goal even when a child is young is to allow them to fall asleep on their own when drowsy.

Can you reprogram your subconscious mind while sleeping? ›

Science indicates that reprogramming the subconscious mind while sleeping is indeed possible. As well-known developmental biologist Dr. Bruce Lipton tells us: “Twice a day, your brain is prepared to download information and this is where you can reprogram the subconscious mind.”

What happens if you listen to something while sleeping? ›

Boosts Sleep Quality & Quantity

If listening to background noise becomes a part of your nightly routine, the positive effects can multiply. Not only will the melody help soothe and relax you, but the routinized aspect of playing songs right before bed will signal your body that it's time to rest.

Does listening to something while you sleep help you memorize it? ›

But a new study by Northwestern University researchers indicates that, depending on what we hear during the night, it is indeed possible to reinforce existing memories and enhance our recall after we wake up.


1. How to sleep well - Wellbeing video
(Northamptonshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust)
2. The Sleep Health Foundation: Sleep Well, Live Well
(Health Professional Radio)
3. Sleep Insitute Foundation - Presentation II International Master in Sleep Medicine
(Universidad Europea)
4. SleepFoundation.org “Gift of Sleep”, sleep transformation campaign
(Sleep Is The Foundation)
5. The brain benefits of deep sleep -- and how to get more of it | Dan Gartenberg
6. Sleep Basics, Sleep Disorders, and General Adaptation Syndrome - Fundamentals of Nursing
(Level Up RN)

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